) One of the first projects Steve and I worked on was to study th

) One of the first projects Steve and I worked on was to study the role of chlorophyll in mediating electron transfer in the solvent-free bilayer systems. A comparison was made to the standard solvent containing BMS202 in vitro bilayer system. We found that the photocurrent/area was about an order of magnitude higher in bilayers formed with the solvent-free method. From quantum yield calculations, it appeared that the higher photocurrent/area obtained with the Montal–Mueller membranes could not be explained solely due to the greater concentration of pigment molecules in the solvent-free system, thus suggesting a possible role of chlorophyll–chlorophyll interactions (Rich and Brody 1981). We went on

to study the effects that various carotenoids played on increasing electron transfer in the solvent-free bilayers and discovered that

the dihydroxy carotenoids were significantly more efficient in electron transfer than beta carotene (Rich and Brody 1982). In the early 1990s, we became Poziotinib in vitro interested in the role of carotenoids as an antioxidant and reported that the dihydroxycarotenoids were significantly more protective against reactive oxygen species than beta carotene (Rich et al. 1992). Fig. 1 AZD3965 research buy Steve Brody (left) and Jim Woodley (right) at International Business Machines (IBM) Watson Laboratories in the 1960s Steve often spent his summers working in labs overseas. Several of these experiences developed into interesting projects during the school year. On one visit Steve became interested in the effects of pressure on the spectra of phycobiliproteins (Brody and Stelzig 1983). This led to a lab effort to study the effects of elevated pressure on the permeability of adriamycin between neoplastic and normal lung cells (Brody et al. 1987). On another trip Steve visited the laboratory of Jean-Jacques Legendre at the Laboratoire d’Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique in Paris. At the time, Jean-Jacques was using computational modeling to study small molecule systems. Jean-Jacques introduced MRIP Steve to several molecular modeling software packages. For

both Steve and myself, this opened a door to a field of research that could virtually be done anywhere if there was access to a computer terminal. Steve directed his interest to predicting protein structure using homology software at the Department of Physiology, Carlsberg Research Center in Copenhagen. The predicted structure and fold recognition for the ferrochelatase protein (Hanson et al. 1997) and for the glutamyl tRNA protein (Brody et al. 1999) are deposited in the Brookhaven Database as ID1FJI and ID1b61, respectively. Since I was still teaching in the New York City school system, I decided to develop several activities that would introduce the world of Molecular Modeling to K-12 students. The project was developed at the NYU Scientific Visualization Center at the same time the Internet was just emerging and allowed for rapid dissemination of the project to the K-12 community.

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