Our research described in this review was supported by the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) of the República Argentina and SECyT-UNRC. W.G. is a Career Member of the CONICET. L.V.R. was
supported by a fellowship from the CONICET. “
“The influence of calcium and magnesium ions on resistance to dehydration in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was investigated. Magnesium ion availability directly influenced yeast cells’ resistance to dehydration and, when additionally supplemented with calcium ions, this provided further significant increase of yeast resistance to dehydration. Gradual rehydration of dry yeast cells in water vapour indicated that both magnesium and calcium may be important for the stabilization
of yeast cell membranes. In particular, calcium ions were shown for the first time to increase the GPCR Compound Library resistance of yeast cells to dehydration in stress-sensitive cultures from exponential growth phases. It is concluded that magnesium and calcium ion supplementations in nutrient media may increase the dehydration stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae cells significantly, and this finding is important for the production of active dry yeast preparations for food and fermentation industries. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most widely exploited microorganism in biotechnology and in food industries. Several food processing technologies use active dry yeast preparations, in which yeast can be described as being in a state of anhydrobiosis. Although Selumetinib concentration the quality of different active dry preparations of bakers’ yeast is extremely high, the viability of other dry yeast preparations (for example, of wine and ethanol yeast) may be compromised following their rehydration and reactivation. There is therefore a need to improve our understanding of the nature of anhydrobiosis, and of the factors that can facilitate successful transition
of yeast into this state. Studies of yeast anhydrobiosis conducted in recent years have contributed greatly to the understanding of the mechanisms of this phenomenon. For example, changes linked to the structure and function of yeast organelles have been elucidated, including the nucleus, mitochondria, vacuolar system, plasma membrane and cell wall (Rapoport Methamphetamine et al., 1986, 1995; Beker & Rapoport, 1987; Laroche et al., 2001; Guyot et al., 2006; Simonin et al., 2007a). Intracellular protective reactions that take place under conditions of dehydration–rehydration have also been described (Beker & Rapoport, 1987; Rapoport et al., 1988; Eleutherio et al., 1993; Krallish et al., 1997; De Souza Espindola et al., 2003; Guzhova et al., 2008). Research into yeast dehydration phenomena at transcriptional and translational levels has been conducted in recent years (Singh et al., 2005; Rossignol et al., 2006; Novo et al., 2007; Vaudano et al., 2009).