“The long-term consequences of early environmental experie

“The long-term consequences of early environmental experiences for development have been explored extensively in animal models to better understand the mechanisms mediating risk of psychopathology in individuals exposed to childhood adversity. One common feature https://www.selleckchem.com/products/E7080.html of these models is disruption of the mother-infant relationship which is associated with impairments in stress responsivity and maternal

behavior in adult offspring. These behavioral and physiological characteristics are associated with stable changes in gene expression which emerge in infancy and are sustained into adulthood. Recent evidence suggests that these long-term effects may be mediated click here by epigenetic modification to the promoter regions of steroid receptor genes. In particular, DNA

methylation may be critical to maternal effects on gene expression and thus generate phenotypic differentiation of offspring and, through effects on maternal behavior of offspring, mediate the transmission of these effects across generations. In this review we explore evidence for the influence of mother-infant interactions on the epigenome and consider evidence for and the implications of such epigenetic effects for human mental health. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Currently there is limited information about the quality of immune responses elicited by candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env)-based immunogens in primates. Here we describe a comprehensive analysis of neutralizing antibody and T-cell responses obtained in cynomolgus macaques by three selected immunization regimens. We used the previously described YU2-based gp140 protein trimers administered in an adjuvant, preceded by two distinct priming strategies: either alphavirus replicon particles expressing matched gp140 trimers or gp120 core proteins stabilized in the CD4-bound conformation. The rationale for priming with replicon particles

was to evaluate the impact of the expression platform on trimer immunogenicity. The stable core proteins were chosen in an attempt to expand selectively lymphocytes recognizing common determinants between the core and trimers Flavopiridol molecular weight to broaden the immune response. The results presented here demonstrate that the platform by which Env trimers were delivered in the priming ( either protein or replicon vector) had little impact on the overall immune response. In contrast, priming with stable core proteins followed by a trimer boost strikingly focused the T-cell response on the core sequences of HIV-1 Env. The specificity of the T-cell response was distinctly different from that of the responses obtained in animals immunized with trimers alone and was shown to be mediated by CD4(+) T cells.

Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated

Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated.

Results: A total of 35 urinary tract regions in 18 males and 7 females with a mean age of 70.4 years were confirmed to have an upper tract malignant tumor and 219 urinary tract regions were confirmed to be tumor-free. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to detect upper urinary tract malignancy were

74.3%, 96.8% and 93.7% for reviewer 1, and 62.9%, 96.3% and 91.7% for reviewer 2, respectively. When patients with a ureteral stent or nephrostomy tube were excluded from analysis, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 86.2%, 99.5% and 97.7% for reviewer 1, and 72.4%, 97.9% and 94.6% for reviewer 2, respectively.

Conclusions: Gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance urography is

accurate to detect upper urinary tract malignant tumors.”
“Our group developed a new psychostimulant animal model reflecting some clinical selleck aspects of schizophrenia better than the conventional model does. In this model, long-lasting prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficit at the basement state is induced via repeated administration of methamphetamine (METH, 2.5 mg/kg) without challenge injection of this psychostimulant. This study elucidates the effects of lamotrigine (LTG, 30 mg/kg) on the initiation and expression of a steady-state PPI deficit induced by the repeated METH administration. We assessed the effect of coadministration of LTG and METH on the initiation of PPI deficit. The LTG was injected 120 min after each METH injection LDK378 chemical structure for 5 times on every alternate day and for an additional 5 times every day, amounting to a total of 10 times. After 11-13 days of the withdrawal period, we measured PPI using the SR-LAB system. Using other animals after 20 min of LTG injection, we subsequently examined the effect of a single injection of LTG on the expression of PPI deficit caused by the repeated METH administration. The LTG blocked the initiation of PPI deficit induced by the repeated

METH administration at 68 dB PD0325901 chemical structure of prepulse intensity, but had no effect on the startle amplitude. The LTG prevented the initiation and expression of neuroplastic PPI deficit detected at the baseline state without any METH challenge injection, which was induced by the repeated administration of this psychostimulant. Results suggest that LTG is useful for blocking progressive deterioration of neurocognitive function and recovering the neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We review the functional and oncologic outcomes of seminal vesicle and prostate capsule sparing cystectomy combined with ileal orthotopic bladder substitution.

Materials and Methods: Between May 2003 to April 2009 a select group of 31 patients (median age 61 years, range 30 to 77) underwent seminal vesicle sparing cystoprostatectomy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

The purpose of our study was to retrospectively review our experi

The purpose of our study was to retrospectively review our experience with this condition and compare the effectiveness of preoperative endovascular intervention with thrombolysis and venoplasty to anticoagulation alone in those undergoing FRRS to preserve subelavian vein Patency.

Methods: A retrospective review was conducted for all venous TOS patients from July 2003 buy GW3965 to May 2009 from a prospectively maintained database. Preoperative clinic notes were reviewed to allow stratification into two groups One

group consisted of patients undergoing preoperative endovascular intervention with thrombolysis and venoplasty, while the other group consisted of patients managed medically with anticoagulation alone prior to FRSS. Operative notes, postoperative venograms, and postoperative duplex imaging results were reviewed for presence of recanalization, chronic nonocclusive thrombus, or continued occlusion.

Results: One hundred three

patients had 110 FRRS for subclavian vein thrombosis (53 men, 50 women), seven of which had contralateral FRRS for thrombosis. The cohort averaged Talazoparib 31 years of age (range, 16-54 years) with an overall, mean follow-up time of 16 months (range, 1-52 months). Of the 110 veins evaluated, 45 underwent endovascular intervention (thombolysis, with or without venoplasty) prior to FRRS, and at 1 year, 41 (91%) were patent with improvement of symptoms. In the 65 veins on anticoagulation alone, 59 (91%) ultimately were patent, with symptomatic improvement in all. Overall, 91% (100/110) of subclavian veins were patent in patients completing follow-up, were asymptomatic, and back to their previous active lifestyle.


https://www.selleck.cn/products/th-302.html Preoperative endovascular intervention offered no benefit over simple anticoagulation prior to FRRS, since the use of thrombolysis prior to FRRS, regardless of need for postoperative venoplasty, had little impact on overall rates of ‘latency. The optimal treatment algorithm may merely be routine anticoagulation for all effort thrombosis patients prior to FRRS followed by venography with venoplasty if needed. The role of thrombolysis for Paget-Schroetter syndrome should be further investigated in randomized trials. (J Vase Surg 2010;52:658-63.)”
“A mouse model of amyloid pathology was used to first examine using a cross sectional design changes in retrosplenial cortex activity in transgenic mice aged 5, 11, 17, and 23 months. Attention focused on: (1) overt amyloid labeled with beta-amyloid((1-42)) and Congo Red staining, (2) metabolic function assessed by the enzyme, cytochrome oxidase, and (3) neuronal activity as assessed indirectly by the immediate-early gene (IEG), c-Fos. Changes in cytochrome oxidase and c-Fos activity were observed in the retrosplenial cortex in Tg2576 mice as early as 5 months of age, long before evidence of plaque formation.

The similar POMC treatment in the hypothalamus had minimal long-t

The similar POMC treatment in the hypothalamus had minimal long-term physiological or metabolic impact. Thus, melanocortin activation in the brainstem NTS region effectively ameliorates chronic dietary obesity whilst that in the hypothalamus fails to do so. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.”

Prognostic implications of partial thrombosis of the residual aorta after repair of acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection have not been elucidated. We sought to analyze the impact of partial thrombosis on segmental growth rates, distal aortic reprocedures, and long-term survival.

Methods: A total of 118 consecutive patients (55% were male; mean age, 60 years) with acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection underwent surgical GSK126 in vivo repair (1997-2007). The hospital mortality rate was 17.8%. Survivors underwent serial computed tomography scans. Segment-specific average rates of enlargement LCL161 supplier were analyzed. Distal reprocedures and patient survival were examined.

Results: Sixty-six patients had imaging data sufficient for growth rate calculations. The median diameters within 2 weeks after repair were as follows: aortic arch, 3.5 cm; descending aorta, 3.6 cm; and abdominal aorta, 2.4 cm. Subsequent growth rates were artic arch, 0.34 mm/y, descending aorta, 0.51 mm/y, and abdominal aorta, 0.35 mm/y. Partial thrombosis of the residual aorta predicted greater

growth in the distal aorta (P = .005). There were 13 distal aortic reprocedures all (5 reoperations, 8 stent graft insertions) for 10 years, and reprocedure-free survival was 66%. Partial thrombosis (P = .002) predicted greater risk of aorta-related reprocedures. Cox analysis revealed that estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P = .030), reintubation (P = .002),

and partial thrombosis (P = .023) were independent predictors for poor survival.

Conclusion: Partial thrombosis of the false lumen after repair of acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection, compared with complete patency or complete thrombosis, is a significant independent predictor of aortic enlargement, aorta-related reprocedures, and poor long-term survival. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 139: 841-7)”
“The globus pallidus sends a significant GABAergic projection to the thalamic reticular nucleus. Because pallidal neurons express D4-dopamine receptors, we have explored their presence on pallidoreticular terminals by studying the effect of dopamine and D4-receptor agonists on the GABAergic transmission in the thalamic reticular nucleus. We made whole-cell recordings of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in the thalamic reticular neurons. Dopamine consistently reduced the IPSCs. The effect of dopamine was associated with paired-pulse facilitation, indicating a presynaptic location of the receptors.

“Alphavirus nonstructural protein nsP1 possesses distinct

“Alphavirus nonstructural protein nsP1 possesses distinct methyltransferase (MTase) and guanylyltransferase (GTase) activities involved in the capping of viral

RNAs. In alphaviruses, the methylation of GTP occurs before RNA transguanylation and nsP1 forms a covalent complex with m(7)GMP unlike the host mRNA guanylyltransferase which forms GMP-enzyme complex. In this study, full length SINV nsP1 was expressed in a soluble form with an N-terminal histidine tag in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein is enzymatically active and contains Belnacasan cell line both MTase and GTase activity indicating that SINV nsP1 does not require membrane association for its enzymatic function. Biochemical analysis shows that detergents abolish nsP1 GTase activity, whereas nonionic detergents do not affect MTase activity. Furthermore, SINV nsP1 contains the metal-ion dependent GTase, whereas MTase does not require a metal ion. Circular dichroism spectroscopic

analysis of purified protein indicate that nsP1 has a mixed alpha/beta structure and is in the folded native conformation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The human kinome comprises over 800 individual kinases. SU5402 mw These contribute in multiple ways to regulation of cellular metabolism and may have direct and indirect effects on virus replication. Kinases are tempting therapeutic targets for drug development, but achieving sufficient specificity is often a challenge for chemical inhibitors. While using inhibitors to assess whether c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) kinases

regulate hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication, we encountered unexpected off-target ever effects that led us to discover a role for a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-related kinase, MAPK interacting serine/threonine kinase 1 (MKNK1), in viral entry. Two JNK inhibitors, AS601245 and SP600125, as well as RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of JNK1 and JNK2, enhanced replication of HCV replicon RNAs as well as infectious genome-length RNA transfected into Huh-7 cells. JNK knockdown also enhanced replication following infection with cell-free virus, suggesting that JNK actively restricts HCV replication. Despite this, AS601245 and SP600125 both inhibited viral entry. Screening of a panel of inhibitors targeting kinases that may be modulated by off-target effects of AS601245 and SP600125 led us to identify MKNK1 as a host factor involved in HCV entry. Chemical inhibition or siRNA knockdown of MKNK1 significantly impaired entry of genotype 1a HCV and HCV-pseudotyped lentiviral particles (HCVpp) in Huh-7 cells but had only minimal impact on viral RNA replication or cell proliferation and viability.

Thus, continuous training programmes that have been shown to redu

Thus, continuous training programmes that have been shown to reduce the pro-inflammatory state in these patients can be recommended. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“It is well known that bone contains small cracks; in vivo these microcracks are constantly growing and being repaired. Too rapid crack growth leads to stress fractures or fragility fractures. In vitro, changes occur in this population of

microcracks when subjected to cyclic loading up to and including failure. Normally, the only parameters reported from such investigations are the number density of cracks and their average length. In the present work we examined the microcrack population in more detail. We analysed ten different sets of experimental data including in vivo and in vitro microcracks, plus two theoretical simulations. We showed for the first time that the distribution of crack lengths can Sirtuin inhibitor be described using the two-parameter Weibull equation. The values of the two constants in the equation varied depending on bone type/species and showed consistent trends during in vitro testing. This is the most detailed

study to be conducted on microcrack populations in bone; the results will be useful in future studies including the development of theoretical models and computer simulations of bone damage and failure. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Currently, Selleck GKT137831 all treatment of mitochondrial disorders is performed with dietary supplements or by off-label use of drugs approved click here for other indications. The present challenge is translation of our collective knowledge of the molecular details underlying the pathophysiology of mitochondrial disorders into safe and effective therapies that are approved by the regulatory authorities.

Molecular details permit precise diagnoses, but homogeneity is gained at the expense of limiting numbers of subjects for clinical trials and of small markets from which to recoup the considerable expense of drug discovery and development. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes that trial designs suitable for common diseases are often not feasible for rare disorders. They have developed a number of programs to facilitate development of novel therapies for such rare diseases, without compromise of regulatory standards. With advances in technology, including the use of biomarkers, replacement therapies and sophisticated trial designs, both biotechnology firms and, increasingly, large integrated pharmaceutical companies, are taking advantage of the opportunities in rare disorders. Precise molecular delineation of pathophysiology and of responsive patients has led to success rates with rare diseases that are significantly greater than those for common disorders. It appears likely, but not yet proven, that this may now be the case for rare mitochondrial disorders as well.

“Mutualistic microorganisms are well known to play a key r

“Mutualistic microorganisms are well known to play a key role in providing nutrients for successful growth and reproduction in many insects. Several recent studies indicate that they can be equally important for the protection of the host and its nutritional resources against pathogen attack. In particular, different actinobacteria have been found to defend ants, beetles and

wasps against detrimental microorganisms by producing antibiotics. The extraordinary abilities of actinobacteria to exploit a wide variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and their extensive repertoire of secondary metabolites probably predispose this group to engage in protective symbioses. Defensive mutualisms with actinobacteria might constitute a general and widespread theme in the ecology and evolution of arthropods, and the study of the secondary metabolites involved promises to uncover novel drug candidates for human medicine.”

Bleomycin price is strong evidence that vascular risk factors play a role in the development of Alzheimer’s Selleckchem IACS-10759 disease (AD) or vascular dementia (vaD). Ethanol (EtOH) and cholesterol are such vascular risk factors, and we recently showed that hypercholesterolemia causes pathologies similar to AD [Ullrich et al. (2010) Mol Cell Neurosci 45, 408-417] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term (12 months) EtOH treatment (20% v/v in drinking water) alone or long-term 5% cholesterol diet alone or a combination (mix) in adult Sprague Dawley rats. Long-term EtOH treatment Flucloronide (plasma EtOH levels 58 +/- 23 mg/dl) caused significant impairment of spatial memory, reduced the number of choline acetyltransferase- and p75 neurotrophin receptor-positive nucleus basalis of Meynert neurons, decreased cortical acetylcholine, elevated

cortical monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tissue-type plasminogen activator, enhanced microglia, and markedly induced anti-rat immunoglobulin G-positive blood brain barrier leakage. The effect of long-term hypercholesterolemia was similar. Combined long-term treatment of rats with 20% EtOH and 5% cholesterol (mix) did not potentiate treatment with EtOH alone, but instead counteracted some of the EtOH-associated effects. In conclusion, our data show that vascular risk factors EtOH and cholesterol play a role in cognitive impairment and possibly vaD. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of several important genital and other mucosal cancers. The HPV16 E7 gene encodes a viral oncogene that is necessary for the continued growth of cancer cells, but its role in the normal, differentiation-dependent life cycle of the virus is not fully understood. The function of E7 in the viral life cycle was examined using a series of mutations of E7 created in the context of the complete HPV16 genome.

Tesofensine (0 5-3 0 mg/kg, s c ) induced a dose-dependent and ma

Tesofensine (0.5-3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) induced a dose-dependent and marked decline in food intake with an ED50 of 1.3 mg/kg. The hypophagic

response of tesofensine (1.5 mg/kg, s.c.) was almost completely reversed by co-administration of prazosin (1.0 mg/kg, alpha(1) adrenoceptor antagonist) and partially antagonized by co-administration of SCH23390 (0.03 mg/kg, DA D-1 receptor antagonist). In contrast, tesofensine-induced hypophagia was not affected by RX821002 (0.3 mg/kg, alpha(2) adrenoceptor antagonist), haloperidol (0.03 mg/kg, D-2 receptor antagonist), NGB2904 (0.1 mg/kg, D-3 receptor antagonist), or ritanserin (0.03 mg/kg, 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist). Hence, the mechanism underlying the suppression of feeding by tesofensine in the obese rat is dependent on the drug’s ability to indirectly stimulate alpha(1) Epacadostat cost adrenoceptor and DA D-1 CRT0066101 chemical structure receptor function. Neuropsychopharmacology ( 2010) 35, 1464-1476; doi: 10.1038/npp.2010.16; published online 3 March 2010″
“Recent studies have implicated alterations in the expression of polyamine-related genes in the brains of suicide completers including widespread downregulation

of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase, the key enzyme in polyamine catabolism, suggesting compensatory mechanisms attempting to increase brain levels of polyamines. Given the complexity of the polyamine system, quantification of the levels of the polyamines is an essential step in understanding the downstream effects of dysregulated gene expression. We developed a method using high-resolution capillary gas chromatography ( GC) in combination with mass spectrometry ( MS) for quantitation of polyamines from post-mortem brain tissue, which allowed us to accurately measure spermidine and putrescine concentrations in post-mortem brain tissues. Using this method, we analyzed putrescine and spermidine levels in a total of 126 samples from Brodmann areas 4, 8/9, and 11, from 42 subjects, comprising 16 suicide completers with major depression, 13 non-depressed suicide completers,

and 13 control subjects. Both putrescine and spermidine levels fell within the expected nanomolar ranges and were significantly elevated in the brain of suicide completers with a history of major depression as compared with controls. These Alectinib mouse results were not accounted by possible confounders. This is the first GC-MS study to analyze the expression of putrescine and spermidine from post-mortem brain tissue and confirms the hypothesis raised by previous studies indicating alterations in putrescine and spermidine levels in suicide/major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology ( 2010) 35, 1477-1484; doi: 10.1038/npp.2010.17; published online 3 March 2010″
“Changes in the brain’s cholinergic receptor systems underlie several neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, and depression.


During the early phase of this influenza p


During the early phase of this influenza pandemic, there was a sudden increase in the rate of severe pneumonia and a shift in the age distribution

of patients with such illness, which was reminiscent of past pandemics and suggested relative protection for persons who were exposed to H1N1 strains during childhood before the 1957 pandemic. If resources or vaccine supplies are limited, these findings suggest a rationale for focusing prevention efforts on younger populations.”
“Early events in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) morphogenesis, particularly the formation of viral membranes, are poorly understood. The major envelope proteins of WSSV are VP28, VP26, VP24, and VP19. Our previous results indicated that VP28 interacts with VP26 and Gemcitabine in vitro VP24. In the present study, we used coimmunoprecipitation assays and pull-down assays to confirm that the four major proteins in the WSSV envelope can form a multiprotein complex. Yeast two-hybrid assays were also used to test for interactions among the four Selleck AZD6094 proteins. In summary, three pairwise protein interactions (VP19-VP28,VP19-VP24, and VP24-VP26) and one self-association (VP24-VP24) were identified for the first time.”

In late March 2009, an outbreak of a respiratory illness later proved to

be caused by novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) was identified in Mexico. We describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of persons hospitalized for pneumonia at the national tertiary hospital for respiratory illnesses in Mexico City who had laboratory-confirmed S-OIV infection, also Immune system known as swine flu.


We used retrospective medical chart reviews to collect data on the hospitalized patients. S-OIV infection was confirmed in specimens with the use of a real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay.


From March 24 through April 24, 2009, a total of 18 cases of pneumonia and confirmed S-OIV infection were identified among 98 patients hospitalized for acute respiratory illness at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases in Mexico City. More than

half of the 18 case patients were between 13 and 47 years of age, and only 8 had preexisting medical conditions. For 16 of the 18 patients, this was the first hospitalization for their illness; the other 2 patients were referred from other hospitals. All patients had fever, cough, dyspnea or respiratory distress, increased serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, and bilateral patchy pneumonia. Other common findings were an increased creatine kinase level ( in 62% of patients) and lymphopenia ( in 61%). Twelve patients required mechanical ventilation, and seven died. Within 7 days after contact with the initial case patients, a mild or moderate influenza-like illness developed in 22 health care workers; they were treated with oseltamivir, and none were hospitalized.

“Background/Aims: The Janus kinase 3 JAK3 participates in

“Background/Aims: The Janus kinase 3 JAK3 participates in the signaling of immune cells. Lack of JAK3 triggers inflammatory bowel disease, which in turn has been shown to affect intestinal activity of the epithelial Na+ channel ENaC and thus colonic sodium absorption. At least in theory, inflammatory bowel disease in JAK3-deficient mice could lead to intestinal salt loss compromizing extracellular volume maintenance and blood pressure regulation. The

present study thus explored whether JAK3 deficiency impacts on colonic ENaC activity, fecal Na+ exretion, blood pressure and extracellular fluid volume regulation. Methods: Experiments were performed in gene-targeted mice lacking functional JAK3 (jak3(-/-)) and in wild type mice (jak3(+/+)). Colonic ENaC activity was estimated from find more amiloride-sensitive current in Ussing chamber experiments, fecal, serum and urinary Na+ concentration by flame photometry, blood pressure by the tail cuff method and serum aldosterone levels by immunoassay. Results: The amiloride (50 mu M)-induced deflection of the transepithelial potential difference was significantly lower and fecal Na+ excretion significantly higher in jak3(-/-) mice than in jak3(+/+) mice. Moreover, systolic IACS-10759 mouse arterial blood pressure was significantly lower and serum aldosterone concentration significantly higher

in jak3(-/-) mice than in jak3(+/+) mice. Both, absolute and fractional renal Na+ excretion were significantly lower in jak3(-/-) mice than in jak3(+/+) mice. Conclusions: JAK3 deficiency leads to impairment of colonic ENaC activity with intestinal Na+ loss, decrease of blood pressure, increased aldosterone release and subsequent

stimulation of renal tubular Na+ reabsorption. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The well-established method for high-throughput construction of an expression system of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae uses homologous recombination between an expression plasmid and a target gene (with homologous regions of the plasmid on both ends added by PCR). This method has been widely used for membrane proteins using plasmids containing GFP, and has been successfully used to investigate the cellular localization and solubilization conditions of the proteins. Although the methanol-utilizing yeast Pichia pastoris is Flucloronide known as an excellent expression host, a method for high-throughput construction of an expression system like that in S. cerevisiae has not been reported. In this study, we have attempted to construct expression systems via homologous recombination in P. pastoris. The insertion of genes into a plasmid could be easily checked by colony-PCR. Expression systems for seven membrane proteins of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) and yeast (S. cerevisiae) were constructed, and the expression of proteins was analyzed by fluorescence spectra, fluorescence microscopy, and SDS-PAGE (in-gel fluorescence detection). (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.