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“Background While abdominal compartment syndrome is a well-recognized clinical entity in the trauma population, the thoracic cavity is a significantly less frequent site of compartment CYTH4 syndrome. Thoracic compartment syndrome (TCS) has been primarily reported
in relation to cardiac/mediastinal procedures [1–5]. Although TCS has been reported outside of the cardiac surgery population, it is exceedingly rare in the trauma population and no case has been reported without cardiac involvement. Here, we present a case of TCS where initiation and pathogenesis were entirely non-cardiac in origin following surgical repair of a stab wound injury that necessitated decompressive thoracotomy and peri-operative open-chest management. Case Presentation A 46-year-old male was brought to the emergency department at Northwestern Memorial Hospital with multiple stab wounds to the neck and chest. He was hypotensive upon arrival and a right needle thoracostomy returned blood and air, resulting in improvement in blood pressure. Secondary survey demonstrated a stab wound to Zone I of the right neck, approximately 2 cm above the right clavicular head, and a second stab wound to the right thoraco-abdominal area 3 cm above the costal margin and 2.