“Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a

“Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive neurostimulaton tool with increasing therapeutic applications in neurology, psychiatry and in the treatment of chronic tinnitus, and with a growing interest ABT-888 molecular weight in cognitive neuroscience. One of its side effects is the loud click sound generated simultaneously to the magnetic pulse, which depends both on the equipment and rTMS intensity. This impulse sound could transiently modify peripheral hearing mechanisms, and hence hearing thresholds, both in patients and in rTMS practitioners. Furthermore, if no precautions are taken, especially in subjects with several risks factors for hearing loss, it is possible that the repetition of exposure could lead

to more definitive changes in hearing thresholds. These issues are often neglected, although they could

have specific relevance in rTMS treatment for tinnitus or in auditory cognitive neuroscience. This review specifically deals with noise exposure during rTMS and its potential consequences on the auditory system. It provides several practical solutions to help minimize exposure. (C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The hepatitis B virus X-protein (HBx), a multifunctional viral regulator, participates in the viral life cycle and in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We previously reported a high incidence of HCC in transgenic mice expressing HBx. In this study, proteomic analysis was performed to identify Selleckchem Salubrinal proteins that may be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis and/or that could be utilized as early detection

biomarkers for HCC. Proteins from the liver tissue of HBx-transgenic mice at early stages of carcinogenesis (dysplasia and hepatocellular adenoma) were separated by 2-DE, and quantitative changes were analyzed. A total of 22 spots displaying significant quantitative changes were identified using LC-MS/MS. In particular, several proteins involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism, such as mitochondrial 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, intestinal fatty acid-binding protein 2 and cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, were differentially expressed, implying that significant metabolic alterations occurred during the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. The results of this proteomic C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) analysis provide insights into the mechanism of HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. Additionally, this study identifies possible therapeutic targets for HCC diagnosis and novel drug development for treatment of the disease.”
“Purpose: Prostate cancer is routinely graded according to the Gleason grading scheme. This scheme is predominantly based on the textural appearance of aberrant glandular structures. Gleason grade is difficult to standardize and often leads to discussion due to interrater and intrarater disagreement. Thus, we investigated whether digital image based automated quantitative histomorphometry could be used to achieve a more standardized, reproducible classification outcome.

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