Specifically, an HLA class I/HCV association could either have (as above for class II) been reported in at least two prior studies, or it could have had a particularly strong (i.e., an odds ratio [OR] ≥3.0) relationship with HCV in one prior study. This odds ratio threshold was selected because three-fold and greater risks are considered to be strong and less
likely to be due to confounding.21 Our review identified six HLA class II alleles and three HLA class I allele groups associated with HCV viremia in two or more studies. An additional two HLA class I allele groups were strongly associated (OR >3.0) with HCV viremia PD0325901 in a single study (shown in Table 1). In contrast to HCV viremia, however, we found only three studies that examined the relation of HCV serostatus with HLA alleles in high-risk populations16–18 and there were no consistent or strong findings among these three studies. The Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) is a prospective, multicenter cohort study of HIV-seropositive (N = 2,793) and HIV-seronegative (N = 975) women enrolled through similar sources at six clinical
sites (Bronx, NY; Brooklyn, NY; Chicago, IL; Los Angeles, CA; San Francisco, CA; and Washington, DC). The initial enrollment was conducted between October 1994 and November 1995, and a subsequent second recruitment cycle occurred in 2002. Selleckchem Decitabine The recruitment methods and data collection procedures for WIHS have been described medchemexpress previously.22 Briefly, subjects in this ongoing study are evaluated every 6 months with standardized interviews, physical examination, and a blood draw. The WIHS protocol was approved by each local Institutional Review Board and all participants signed informed consent. In the current investigation we focused on WIHS women who, at the enrollment visit, had either self-reported a history of injection drug use (IDU) and were therefore considered at high risk of HCV infection and/or were HCV seropositive.
Among HCV seropositive women (N = 1,204) we limited our analysis to women with known HCV RNA status (N = 1,070), self-reported White non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, or Hispanic race/ethnicity (N = 1,046), and had complete HLA data at one or more HLA loci (N = 758). Among the IDU (N = 1,161), we limited our analyses to women with known HCV serostatus (N = 1,129), self-reported White non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, or Hispanic race/ethnicity (N = 1,098), and had complete HLA data at one or more HLA loci (N = 838). HCV serostatus was determined in all WIHS subjects at enrollment using a commercial second-or third-generation enzyme immunoassay. HCV viremia was determined for HCV-seropositive women using either the COBAS Amplicor Monitor 2.0, which has a linear range of 600–5.