Table 1 Results from studies of biodiversity effects on production and further ecosystem services in grassland with some form of agricultural management buy XMU-MP-1 Management Country Plant diversity Production Further ecosystem services References Rotational grazing (dairy
cows), no fertiliser, clipping of excessive ungrazed forage Pennsylvania, USA 2–9 sown species 0 (herbage intake, milk production) + (higher conjugated linoleic acid content of milk with more species) Soder et al. (2006) Rotational grazing (beef cattle) Illinois, USA 3–8 sown species 0 (stocking rate, C59 wnt average daily gain, despite initially higher herbage mass in more diverse plots before grazing) n.d. Tracy and Faulkner (2006) Rotational grazing (to different target heights), mowing Pennsylvania, USA 1–7 sown species 0 (in favourable years higher yields in fertilised monocultures) + (more consistent
yields in diverging weather conditions, improved CP and IVTDMD at first harvest, more stable quality of complex mixtures over season) Deak et al. (2009) Montane semi-natural grassland (78 plots under agricultural management, grazed or cut) Germany 8–33 species; average of 20 species 0 (for species see more richness as well as effective diversity and Camargo’s evenness) plant community composition explained productivity n.d. Kahmen et al. (2005) Park grass experiment, different fertilisation treatments since 1856 with N, P or K, two cuts (initially one cut followed by grazing) England 3–44 species per 200 m² − (less species numbers with more production) + (stability of hay biomass was positively correlated with species number, albeit weakly) Silvertown et al. (2006) Experimental restoration sites (sown on arable land, no weeding), late cut with autumn and winter sheep-grazing England Mixtures with 6–17 or 25–41 species
(species-poor and -rich, respectively) + (linear relationship between difference in species number among treatments and increase in hay yield) 0 (no effect on fodder quality) Bullock et Pyruvate dehydrogenase al. (2001) Experimental plots, no weeding, one cut/year, followed over 9 years The Netherlands 0–15 sown species, on average 10 to 14 species in total + (productivity increased with number of sown species) However, if total species number was considered, there was no clear relationship + (stability increased with sown species number, but not with total species number) Bezemer and van der Putten (2007) Experimental plots, rotational or continuous grazing, initial weeding during establishment New Zealand 0–8 functional groups + (for sown species in spring) 0 (for total species production in spring as well as total and sown species production in autumn) + (resistance to invasion, resilience to disturbance) Dodd et al. (2004) Indoor cafeteria experiment with sheep China 1–11 species + (more voluntary average daily intake of sheep with higher diversity) n.d. Wang et al.