The model also generated a number of novel predictions, for examp

The model also generated a number of novel predictions, for example, the effect of threat on reaction time only occurs when the target stimulus is unattended, and the IAP inhibitor P3a indexes prefrontal cortex activity involved in redirecting attention toward response processes

on that trial and sensory processes on subsequent trials.”
“The present study was designed to address the role of macrophages in Mn-induced neurotoxicity and to test the hypothesis that minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, attenuates the biochemical and morphological sequelae of Mn. Mn was unilaterally microinjected into rat nigra followed by systemic minocycline or saline administration 24 h later, daily for 3 days. At 72 h after the intranigral Mn microinjection, tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining (TH-IS) was evaluated

in the striatum, along with the number of macrophages (as indicated by CD11b immunostaining) in the substantia nigra. Mn significantly reduced striatal TH-IS, and causes an increased macrophage number at the lesion site when compared with the control group. The effects of Mn on striatal TH-IS and the number of macrophages at the lesion site were concentration dependent. Consistent with the stated hypothesis, minocycline significantly DihydrotestosteroneDHT clinical trial reduced the macrophage number in the lesion site and minimized the TH-IS striatal loss induced by Mn. These results indicate that an inflammatory response mediated by macrophages is induced by intranigral Mn microinjection, which is fully attenuated by minocycline treatment, suggesting that suppression of macrophage infiltration provides neuroprotection to dopaminergic neurons. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”

recognition that computational ideas from reinforcement learning are relevant to the study of neural circuits AZD5582 nmr has taken the cognitive neuroscience community by storm. A central tenet of these models is that discrepancies between actual and expected outcomes can be used for learning. Neural correlates of such prediction-error signals have been observed now in midbrain dopaminergic neurons, striatum, amygdala and even prefrontal cortex, and models incorporating prediction errors have been invoked to explain complex phenomena such as the transition from goal-directed to habitual behavior. Yet, like any revolution, the fast-paced progress has left an uneven understanding in its wake. Here, we provide answers to ten simple questions about prediction errors, with the aim of exposing both the strengths and the limitations of this active area of neuroscience research.”
“The N2pc component has recently become a popular tool in attention research. To investigate whether this component exclusively reflects attentional target selection or also prior stages in attentional processing (covert orienting, target-unspecific spatial attention), a spatial cuing procedure was combined with a visual search task.

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