The Pioneer Researchers
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Of all the land plants the orchids (Orchidaceae) are among the most beautiful and charismatic. Found on all continents except Antarctica, the Orchidaceae is one of the most diverse families of flowering Interleukin-2 receptor plants with approximately 20,000 species (Smith et al. Smith 2004). In Maryland, 21 genera and 51 species are known (Knapp and Naczi unpublished data) occupying a diverse array of habitats from dry to wet substrates in forested to open-sunny conditions (Brown and Brown 1984). In the Catoctin Mountains of Frederick Co., Maryland, 27 species (native and non-native) have been informally reported (Wieg and unpublished data). Of these 27 species, 21 were readily occurring at the onset of this study. Four are listed as threatened or endangered (Maryland Natural Heritage Program 2010): longbract frog orchid (Coeloglossum viride var. virescens, yellow fringed orchid (Platanthera ciliaris), greater purple fringed orchid (Platanthera grandiflora), and yellow nodding ladie’s tresses (Spiranthes ochroleuca). Two are listed as rare (Maryland Natural Heritage Program 2010): brown widelip orchid (Liparis liliifolia), and palegreen orchid (Platanthera flava var. herbiola).