“The postictal state is the abnormal condition occurring b

“The postictal state is the abnormal condition occurring between the end of an epileptic seizure and return to baseline condition. Applying this definition operationally can be difficult, especially for complex partial seizures, where cognitive and sensorimotor impairments merge imperceptibly into the postictal state. Many patients are unaware of even having had a seizure. Electroencephalography sometimes helps to distinguish ictal from postictal periods, but may demonstrate focal

slowing both during and after a seizure. Epileptiform electroencephalographic selleck compound changes do not always correspond precisely to behavioral changes, especially with scalp recordings. The postictal state ends at the interictal state, but this too can be ambiguous. Interictal spikes and spike-waves can be associated with cognitive and behavioral impairments, suggesting that they may represent fragments of ictal episodes. Except where boundaries are clear, it is better to describe a sequence of behaviors and electroencephalographic changes, without labeling arbitrary stages as being ictal or postictal. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We investigate magnetization reversal in a system of two Stoner

click here particles with uniaxial anisotropies both subject to a static and antiparallel magnetic field, and taking into account their mutual dipolar interaction. We identify an interesting regime of stable synchronized magnetic dynamics where the two particles are implementing a single information bit. Here a modified Stoner-Wohlfarth limit occurs which results in a dramatically lower critical switching field H-c (including H-c = 0) and also a substantially shorter reversal time. Our analytical results are verified by numerical simulations and offer new technological perspectives regarding devices for information storage and/or fast magnetic response. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics.

“Melanoma is the most common lethal AZ 628 inhibitor cutaneous neoplasm. In order to harmonise treatment and follow-up of melanoma patients, guidelines for the management of melanoma in Switzerland were inaugurated in 2001 and revised in 2006. A new classification and recent results in randomised trials necessitated changes concerning staging and modifications of the recommendations of therapy and follow-up.”
“Little is known about how the brain limits seizure duration and terminates seizures. Depending on severity and duration, a single seizure is followed by various functional, metabolic, and synaptic changes that may form targets for novel therapeutic strategies. It is long known that most seizures are followed by a period of postictal refractoriness during which the threshold for induction of additional seizures is increased.

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