The relationships between the oil cell ontogeny and oil accumulat

The relationships between the oil cell ontogeny and oil accumulation with essential oil yields and compositions were systematically analyzed. The results indicated that the

leaves of the 2-year-old branch had the highest density of oil cells (6.91 n/mm(2)) and the maximum percentage of oil cells at the oil saturation stage (48.05%), which coincided with the highest oil yield (2.12%) and trans-cinnamaldehyde content (66.47%). The oils were less accumulated in the 1-4 leaves of annual branch and were mostly disintegrated in the leaves of 4 years old branch, therefore the lower percentages of oil cells at oil saturation stage (6.72 and 33.71%, respectively) resulted in the lower oil yields (1.01 and 0.54%, respectively) and lower percentages of trans-cinnamaldehyde (57.89% and 61.57%, respectively). Curve fitting of the FT-IR results agreed with that of the GC-MS analysis. These results can provide reference information for the rational utilization of cinnamon resources and harvest of cassia leaves. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

Dense breasts have been suggested as a risk factor for breast cancer, but controversy still

remains. This study evaluates the association of reproductive and hormonal factors with dense breasts among Korean women.

Materials and Methods

Using a cross-sectional design, 516 women were recruited and classified for breast density PRIMA-1MET in vivo patterns as being either fatty or dense, using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) of the American College

of Radiology. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis.


In univariate EPZ 6438 logistic regression, older age, higher body mass index, older age at menarche, and oral contraceptive use were associated with more fatty breasts. On the contrary, longer duration of education, alcohol consumption, lower parity, menopause and use of hormone replacement therapy were associated with dense breasts. After adjustment, age and body mass index were inversely associated with breast density (p-value for trend < 0.01, respectively), whereas nulliparous and premenopausal status were positively associated. Compared to women who had >= 2 children, nulliparous women had an 11.8-fold increase of dense breasts (p-value for trend < 0.01). Compared to postmenopausal women, premenopausal women had 2.4-fold increase of dense breasts (odds ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.36 to 4.32).


Young age, lower body mass index, lower parity, and premenopausal status were significantly associated with dense breasts in Korea.”
“During performance of direct laryngoscopy in the difficult-to-visualize airway, several maneuvers have the potential to impact glottic visualization, including jaw thrust and cricoid pressure.

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