The results of this study, although obtained in vitro, indicate that the IncI1 plasmid carrying the bla CTX-M-1 gene does not impose or only imposes small fitness costs in the absence of antimicrobials. Apart from abandoning the use of antimicrobials, additional measures might be required to reduce the occurrence of this plasmid, such as competitive exclusion with other bacteria carrying incompatible plasmids
[6, 16]. If the IncI1 plasmid shows the same absence of fitness costs in vivo as in our in vitro experiments and additional control measures cannot be found, it is expected that this plasmid Ro-3306 in vivo remains present in poultry even without the use of antimicrobials. Selleck Tucidinostat Conclusions Fitness costs in the absence of antimicrobials for E. coli with the IncI1 plasmid carrying the bla CTX-M-1 gene were not found. The plasmid persisted in an in vitro
culture system without antimicrobial selection pressure, indicating that it might persist in other biological systems outside the laboratory even without antimicrobial selection pressure. This implicates that reduction of antibiotic usage only might not be effective to control the occurrence of such a gene-plasmid combination in broilers. In vivo studies should provide evidence for this hypothesis. Acknowledgements This work was supported PND-1186 price by ZonMW, The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development, within the Priority Medicines ‘Antimicrobiële Resistentie’ program, project number 50-51700-98-010. We thank Dr Hilde Smith of the Central Veterinary mafosfamide Institute, part of Wageningen UR, for explaining the addiction systems
in the IncI1 plasmid. We thank three anonymous reviewers for their useful comments on a previous version of this manuscript. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Isolates: Characteristics of broiler E. coli isolates and plasmids. Table with Characteristics of broiler E. coli isolates and plasmids used in the study. (DOCX 43 KB) Additional file 2: Experiments: Strains and initial concentration in the experiments. Descriptive table of the experiments in this study. Listed are the strains and initial concentrations for each experiment and the parameters estimated from these experiments. (DOCX 39 KB) Additional file 3: Model details: Model equations, overview of model parameters, re-parameterization of an existing growth model and derivation of specific estimators. (DOCX 48 KB) Additional file 4: Other fits: Fitted models. Fit results of other model structures and parameterizations. (DOCX 47 KB) References 1. Bradford PA: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in the 21st century: Characterization, epidemiology, and detection of this important resistance threat. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001,14(4):933–951.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 2.