The types of items preferred also shifted with
condition, with subjects only being biased toward expensive items when instructed to maximize profit. Item preferences even differed depending on whether participants were acquiring versus removing items, even though the task only differed superficially in the two conditions. Acquisitiveness reflects a complex mix of affective, cognitive, and personality factors that extend well beyond the drive to acquire valuable resources, with important implications for basic decision science, sustainability, and pathologies associated with compulsive acquisition. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Islets produce a variety of cytokines and chemokines in response to physiologic and pathologic stimulation find more by nutrients. The cellular source of these inflammatory mediators includes alpha-, beta-, endothelial-, ductal- and recruited immune cells. Islet-derived cytokines promote alpha- and beta-cell adaptation and repair in the short term. Eventually, chronic metabolic stress can induce a deleterious autoinflammatory process in islets leading to insulin secretion
failure and type 2 diabetes. Understanding the specific role of islet derived cytokines and chemokines has opened the door to targeted clinical interventions aimed at remodeling islet inflammation from destruction to adaptation. In this article, we review the islet cellular origin of various cytokines and chemokines and describe their regulation and respective roles in physiology and diabetes.”
“We GSK621 chemical structure compared the effects of bilateral amygdala, hippocampal or orbital frontal cortex lesions on emotional and hormonal reactivity in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Experiment 1 measured behavioral
reactivity to an unfamiliar human intruder before and after surgery. Animals with amygdala lesions demonstrated decreases in one passive defensive behavior (freezing), whereas animals with hippocampal lesions showed decreases in a more stimulus-directed defensive Megestrol Acetate behavior (tooth grinding). Orbital frontal cortex lesions also reduced these two defensive behaviors, as well as decreased cage-shaking dominance displays. Animals with amygdala, hippocampal or sham lesions also demonstrated increased tension-related behaviors after surgery, but those with orbital frontal lesions did not. Finally, all three lesions diminished the operated animals’ ability to modulate tension-related behaviors depending on the magnitude of threat posed by the human intruder. Experiment 2 measured circulating levels of cortisol and testosterone when a subset of these same animals was at rest and following physical restraint, temporary isolation, exposure to threatening objects and social interactions with an unfamiliar conspecific. None of the lesions impacted on testosterone levels in any condition.