The vast majority of the C jejuni isolates of both groups formed

The vast majority of the C. jejuni isolates of both groups formed by MLST-CC 21, 48, 49, 206, and 446 as well as MLST-CC 52, 353, 354, 443, 658, and 61 is positive for the click here marker genes cj1365c, cj1585c, cj1321-6, fucP, cj0178 and cj0755. These isolates, with comparable marker gene profile, mix in the ICMS-spectra-based PCA-dendrogram despite of their phylogenetic distance, as noted above. One obvious exception is a group of MLST-ST SC79 in vivo 21 isolates of bovine origin expressing TLP7m+c, which forms a common subcluster in the

PCA-subcluster Ib. Finally, there is very small cluster with a significant phylopreteomic distance (IIa1) of SBI-0206965 dmsA + and cstII + isolates belonging to MLST-CC 1034. Discussion Today, phylogenetic methods like MLST [11] and flaA-SVR sequencing

[12] are considered to be the standard typing methods for C. jejuni isolates. Thus, every new classification technique must be compared with those genomic classifications [25]. However, the genomic methods reflect some phenotypic aspects only insufficiently. In this context, MALDI-TOF MS-based ICMS has recently advanced to be a widely used routine species identification tool for cultured bacteria and fungi [20–22]. In contrast to species identification by ICMS, subtyping within a single species (or differentiation between extremely close related species) is a more subtle process. Nevertheless, several examples already do exist proving the applicability of this method for isolate differentiation at the subspecies level, for example it was shown that methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl can be discriminated by ICMS [28]. ICMS can also be used to differentiate between the Lancefield groups A, B, C, and G of Streptococci[29,

30]. Other examples are the subtyping of Listeria monocytogenes[31], Salmonella enterica[26, 32, 33], Yersinia enterocolitica[34], and Stenotrophomonas spp. [35]. The discrimination between the different Campylobacter and closely related species is well established and species-specific mass spectra are integrated in routine databases [23, 36–39]. It has also been demonstrated that shifts in biomarker masses, which are observable in MALDI-TOF spectra due to amino acid substitutions caused by nonsynonomous mutations in the biomarker gene, can be used to discriminate between the C. jejuni subspecies C. jejuni subsp. jejuni and C. jejuni subsp. doylei[37, 40]. As noted above the C.

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