These viruses were more pathogenic and replicated
to higher titers in the lungs of mice lacking both IFN receptors than in mice with single IFN receptor defects. In contrast, Lassa fever virus, which infects via the respiratory tract but primarily replicates in the liver, was not influenced by the IFN-lambda receptor defect. Careful analysis revealed that expression of functional IFN-lambda receptor complexes in the lung and intestinal tract is restricted to epithelial cells and a few other, undefined cell types. FRAX597 nmr Interestingly, we found that SARS coronavirus was present in feces from infected mice lacking receptors for both type I and type III IFN but not in those from mice lacking single receptors, supporting the view that IFN-lambda contributes to the control Selleck AZD6738 of viral infections in epithelial cells of both respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.”
“Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral pathogen in humans. Neither vaccine nor antiviral therapy is currently available for DENV. We report here that N-sulfonylanthranilic
acid derivatives are allosteric inhibitors of DENV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The inhibitor was identified through high-throughput screening of one million compounds using a primer extension-based RdRp assay [substrate poly(C)/oligo(G) 20]. Chemical modification of the initial “”hit”" improved the compound potency to an IC(50) (that is, a concentration that inhibits 50% RdRp activity) of 0.7 mu M. In addition to suppressing the primer extension-based RNA elongation, the compound also inhibited de novo RNA synthesis using a DENV subgenomic RNA, but at a lower potency (IC(50) of 5 mu M). Remarkably, the observed anti-polymerase activity is specific to DENV RdRp; the compound did not inhibit WNV RdRp and exhibited IC(50)s of >
100 mu M against hepatitis C virus RdRp and human DNA polymerase alpha and beta. UV cross-linking and mass spectrometric analysis showed that a photoreactive inhibitor could be cross-linked to Met343 within the RdRp domain of DENV NS5. On the crystal structure of DENV RdRp, Met343 is located at the entrance of RNA find more template tunnel. Biochemical experiments showed that the order of addition of RNA template and inhibitor during the assembly of RdRp reaction affected compound potency. Collectively, the results indicate that the compound inhibits RdRp through blocking the RNA tunnel. This study has provided direct evidence to support the hypothesis that allosteric pockets from flavivirus RdRp could be targeted for antiviral development.”
“The high molecular weight isoforms (a and b) of microtubule-associate protein 2 (MAP2a,b) are widely believed to be specific markers for neuronal somata and dendrites.