This long diffusion length of the adatoms along the sidewall coul

This long diffusion length of the adatoms along the sidewall could be associated to the much slower radial growth rate in comparison with the axial growth rate. Distribution of the overall deposition volume Epigenetics inhibitor between the radial and axial growth is also shown in inset of Figure 3. It shows that more volume is deposited onto the sidewall with increase of growth time. This is mainly due to the significant increase of the length with increase of growth time; hence, more adatoms could not diffuse up to the tip of NW and contribute to the radial growth. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) has provided direct experimental evidence of the crystallinity of the InAs nanowires grown on HOPG substrates. The InAs nanowires, with

an average diameter of approximately 100 nm, were surrounded by an amorphous layer of a few nanometers thick (see Figure 4a). This GDC-0973 concentration amorphous layer is associated with the chemiabsorption PI3K inhibition of oxygen on the InAs nanowire due to exposure to air [31]. The oxidation of the structure begins with a thin amorphous layer that is observed to form a crystalline phase over time under the electron beam. The NWs grown under these conditions showed a polytype-like structure with mixed wurtzite (WZ) and zinc blende (ZB) character,

with multiple stacking faults on (111)/(0001) planes. This polytypism can be easily revealed at higher magnification (Figure 4b). The electron diffraction pattern recorded in similar areas (Figure 4c) shows streaks, indicating the polytype nature of these NWs. The area inside the white rectangle in Figure 4b has been enlarged to highlight the

change in the stacking (Figure 4d). The HRTEM inset shows a transition between WZ (BABA) to twinned ZB area (ABCBA). The resulting mixture of crystal structures is similar to previously reported InGaAs MG-132 chemical structure NWs grown by MOCVD [2–5]. The ZB phase is normally the most stable crystal structure in bulk III-V semiconductors due to the slightly lower free energy for ZB than that of WZ. However, the crystal structure of materials in nanometer scale is more efficient in reducing the surface energy caused by the large surface-to-volume ratio [32–36]. Theoretical description of the self-catalysed GaAs NWs indicates that WZ phase is thermodynamically favoured for low supersaturation of Ga droplets with As (i.e. low atomic fraction in the Ga droplets), but increase in supersaturation or the shrinkage of the liquid droplets can lead to other phases [37, 38]. Thus, III-V NWs with ZB phase are often mixed with WZ phase and related stacking defects such as twin defects, stacking faults and ZB-WZ polytypism. Figure 4 Images of InAs NW on graphite. TEM images of an InAs NW on graphite (a); the HRTEM image showing the crystal structure (b); the electron diffraction pattern (c) and the enlarged image of the highlighted white rectangular area showing the changes in the stacking (d).

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