This took longer to become apparent in the cyanobacterial species

This took longer to become apparent in the cyanobacterial species (48 h, Figure 2C) where significant differences from the control also occurred in the sulfite and cysteine treatments. The latter was not the case for Chlamydomonas or Cyanidioschyzon. Here again, this could be accounted for by sulfur metabolism differences between cyanobacteria

and algae, or possibly distinct tolerances to the toxic effects of these metabolites. High rates of sulfite assimilation into amino acids [34] and high expression of SSU1, Selleck Ruboxistaurin a sulfite efflux gene [35], are known to result in lower toxicity to sulfite in yeast. Similar mechanisms may also occur in Synechococcus. The thermophilic red microalga, Cyanidioschyzon, was capable of biotransforming approximately three times as much Cd(II) into metal sulfide as the mesophilic green alga, Chlamydomonas, when both were grown in 100 μM Cd(II). This ability may be accounted for by its adaptation to sulfur-rich hot springs [36]. In fact, the Cyanidium medium [37] used to grow Cyanidioschyzon contains over an order MRT67307 manufacturer of magnitude

more sulfate than the high salt medium conventionally used for Chlamydomonas. The sensitivity of Synechococcus to Cd(II) is much higher than in the eukaryotic species. Nevertheless, metal biotransformation into sulfide by this species was only about half of that for Chlamydomonas, indicating that although sensitive to cadmium, it was able to transform a high proportion of the Cd(II)

into metal sulfide. The fact that Synechococcus can convert a relatively high amount of Cd(II) into metal sulfide while remaining very sensitive to Cd(II), might be attributed to a relatively high susceptibility to displacement of metals by Cd as cofactors in photosynthetic and other metabolic enzymes, and to disruption of membrane function [4]. Similarly, this could account for the differences between the algal species. The first report of acid labile sulfide in living organisms was in association with metallothioneins and phytochelatins in fission yeast [38], and it is known that metallothionein gene amplification can confer MM-102 resistance to cadmium in Synechococcus PCC 6301 [39]. Algal phytochelatins bind cadmium in relatively low metal to peptide amounts [40] and it is likely that CdS Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) formed in the organisms in the present study are mainly in the form of precipitated nanoparticles, examples of which have been reported in as diverse organisms as Klebsiella[41], marine microalgae [33], tomatoes [42] and mustard plants [43]. This, however, remains to be confirmed. Sulfate assimilation Most organisms absorb sulfur from the environment in the form of inorganic sulfate and active transport systems for sulfate uptake have been investigated extensively in algae [44–46], bacteria [47], yeast [48], and higher plants [49, 50]. Algae and cyanobacteria appear to undergo sulfur assimilation in a similar manner [51, 52].

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