Three STs (ST-7, ST-23 and ST-26) FAK inhibitor were found in both isolates from humans and fish. The most common ST (ST-41) was identified nine
times, followed by ST-42 (eight isolates) and ST-45 (seven isolates). The overall discriminatory power for the 146 isolates was 0.9861, that for the isolates from 39 humans was 0.9987 and for the isolates from fish was 0.9755. ClonalFrame was used to construct a dendrogram using the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the seven gene loci of the 146 isolates (Fig. 1). Figure 1 Phylogenetic tree showing the relationships of the 97 STs of L. hongkongensis in this study. The genetic relatedness among the 97 STs was assessed by ClonalFrame algorithm KPT-8602 based on the pair-wise differences in the see more allelic profiles of the seven housekeeping genes. Numbers immediately to the right of the dendrogram show the eBURST clonal clusters to which the STs belong. eBURST grouped the isolates into 12 lineages, with 14
STs in group 1, 12 STs in group 2, seven STs in group 3, three STs in groups 4–6 and two STs in groups 7–12, whereas 43 STs did not belong to any of the 12 groups (Fig. 2 and Additional files 1 and 2). These 43 singleton STs were isolated from 25 patients and 19 fish (one ST was found in both). All these 12 groups were also observed as clusters in the dendrogram (Fig. 1). Groups oxyclozanide 2, 3, 7, 8, 11 and 12 contained only isolates from fish, group 1 contained 34 isolates from fish and two isolates from humans, group 4 contained three isolates from fish and one isolate from human, group 9 contained one isolate
from fish and two isolates from humans, and groups 5, 6 and 10 contained only isolates from human. I S A measurement showed significant linkage disequilibrium in both isolates from humans and fish. The I S A for the isolates from humans and fish were 0.270 (0.243 if the three isolates from Switzerland were removed and 0.251 if the allelic profiles of the 38 unique STs of the isolates from humans were used) and 0.636 (0.469 if the allelic profiles of the 59 unique STs of the isolates from fish were used), indicating that the isolates from fish were more clonal than the isolates from humans. Only one interconnected network (acnB) was detected in the split graphs (Fig. 3). The P-value (P = 0) of sum of the squares of condensed fragments in Sawyer’s test showed evidence of intragenic recombination in the rho, acnB and thiC loci, but the P-value (P = 1) of maximum condensed fragment in these gene loci did not show evidence of intragenic recombination (Table 2). Congruence analysis showed that all the pairwise comparisons of the 7 MLST loci were incongruent, indicating that recombination played a substantial role in the evolution of L. hongkongensis. (Table 3).