To be specific, ALD of Al2O3 with trimethylaluminum (TMA) and wat

To be specific, ALD of Al2O3 with trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water on the treated GaAs(001) with ammonia or ozone often left As-As dimers at the interface, resulting

in significant frequency dispersion in the C-V characteristic curve [7–9]. This conventional cleaning process does not reproduce the clean reconstructed surface and must be adjudged a failure. The resulting uncertainty regarding the chemistry and reconstruction of the surface prevents an understanding of the nature of the interaction with adsorbates and stands in the way of systematic improvements. It impacts both work on the interfacial electronic structure of high-κ dielectric oxides/(In)GaAs [10–12] and spintronics based on Fe3Si/GaAs [13, 14]. In this Torin 1 chemical structure work, we present a high-resolution core-level SRPES investigation of the electronic structure of the clean, Ga-rich GaAs(001)-4 × 6

surface, followed by the characterization of the surface after 1 cycle of ALD of, first, TMA and then water H2O onto the TMA-covered surface. For comparison, we also present the data of 1 cycle of TMA and H2O on As-rich GaAs(001)-2 × 4. We note that the ALD precursors were exposed onto a surface with a long-range order, a condition of that has not been previously achieved in work with GaAs. Method The samples were fabricated in a multi-chamber growth/analysis system, which includes a GaAs-based molecular this website beam epitaxy (MBE) chamber, an ALD reactor, and many other functional chambers [15, 16]. These chambers are connected via transfer modules, which maintain ultra-high vacuum of 10−10 Torr. Thus, pristine surfaces were obtained learn more during the sample transfer. MBE

was employed to grow Si-doped GaAs (1 to 5 × 1017 cm−3) onto 2-in. n-GaAs(100) wafers. ALD was employed to high κ dielectrics on freshly MBE-grown GaAs. The samples were transferred in vacuo into a portable module kept at 2 × 10−10 Torr and transported to the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center located in Taiwan for SRPES measurements. Photoelectrons were collected with a 150-mm others hemispherical analyzer (SPECS, Berlin, Germany) in an ultra-high vacuum chamber with a base pressure of approximately 2 × 10−10 Torr. The overall instrumental resolution was better than 60 meV, and the binding energy was established in accordance with the Fermi edge of Ag. Results and discussion The surface reconstruction of GaAs(001) was first checked with reflection high-energy electron diffraction in the molecular beam epitaxial growth chamber and then verified with low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) in the photoemission chamber. The LEED pattern is shown in Figure 1a. It consists of sharp 4 × 6 spots and third-order streaks along the [110] direction. The streaking pattern indicates that the surface contains small domains of (6 × 6) or c(8 × 2) reconstruction. The low background intensity indicates that the surface is smooth with a great long-range order. Recently, Ohtake et al.

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