We excluded patients who were classified as a housewife or studen

We excluded CB-839 nmr patients who were classified as a housewife or student. The hospitals belong to a nonprofit organization that

see more provides special attention for occupation-related conditions and were founded by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Stroke was diagnosed using the international classification of diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes for cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Outcome measure The outcome was return to work after stroke, which was defined as active employment in formal paid work on a full-time or part-time basis which was identified at follow-up 18 months after the onset of stroke. The information was reported directly by patients, by physiatrists at the outpatient clinic interviewing patients, or by trained clerical staff interviewing patients by telephone at 18 months after onset. Procedures A unified electronic data format was used to extract patient information from hospital records at the time of admission, discharge, and follow-up 18 months post-stroke. Data were collected on history and lifestyle factors, buy QNZ demographic factors, diagnostic factors, functional factors, and occupational factors. Physiatrists interviewed patients

to obtain information regarding history and lifestyle factors at initial rehabilitation and collected clinical and diagnostic factors at discharge from medical records. Higher cortical dysfunction (brain impairment related to behavior, cognition, and language that cannot be explained by motor paralysis or sensory or perception disorders)

was diagnosed by neurologists using the neurological examination based on higher cortical dysfunction diagnosis guidelines (Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare 2007), the Standard Language Test of Aphasia (Japan Society for Higher Brain Dysfunction 2003), the Mini-Mental State Examination (Folstein et al. 1975), the line bisection test, and the Kohs block test. Radiologists independently and in a blinded enough manner made diagnoses regarding etiology, anatomical location, and size of stroke by neuroradiological imaging. Occupational therapists evaluated functional factors with the modified Rankin scale (mRS) (van Swieten et al. 1988) and the Barthel index (BI) (Malloney and Barthel 1965). The BI is a measure of functional ability in personal care including self-care, bowel and bladder sphincter control, and mobility. Job type was classified according to the Japanese standard classification of occupations (Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare 1997). We classified the following jobs as white collar: clerks, technicians, highly skilled professionals, directors, and managers. Unskilled workers, production-line/machine workers, drivers, skilled manual workers, farm/horticulture workers, and service workers were classified as blue collar.

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