We found that core protein dimer bound and encapsidated both the

We found that core protein dimer bound and encapsidated both the HBV pregenomic RNA and heterologous RNA with high levels of cooperativity, irrespective of phosphorylation.

In direct competition assays, no specificity for pregenomic RNA was observed. This suggests that another factor, such as the viral polymerase, is required for specific packaging. These results also beg the question of Alvocidib nmr what prevents HBV core protein from assembling on nonviral RNA, preserving the protein for virus production.”
“A putative latency-associated transcript (LUNA) complementary to the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL81-82 region previously identified in seropositive donors’ monocytes is also expressed during lytic infection. Thus, the LUNA promoter is active during both lytic and latent infection. Consequently, the mechanisms regulating this promoter may provide further insight into factors that determine whether the outcome of HCMV infection is latent or lytic.

By transfection, the LUNA promoter exhibited low but reproducible activity. Substantial activation by virus infection suggested that a viral factor was important for LUNA expression during lytic infection. IE72, a known transactivator of viral promoters, activated the LUNA JAK inhibitor promoter in cotransfection assays. Furthermore, coinfection with wild-type HCMV but not an IE72 deletion virus (CR208) also activated the LUNA promoter. Finally, diminished LUNA gene expression in CR208 virus-infected cells supported a role for IE72 in LUNA gene expression. The initial regulation of herpesvirus immediate-early gene expression is associated with proteins found at cellular nuclear domain 10 (ND10) bodies, such as PML, hDaxx, and ATRX. hDaxx transfection repressed LUNA promoter activity. Furthermore, we observed binding of hDaxx to the LUNA promoter, which was abrogated by IE72 gene expression via direct interaction. Finally, we show that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of the hDaxx interaction partner ATRX rescued LUNA gene expression in CR208-infected cells. Overall, these data show that hDaxx/ATRX-mediated repression of LUNA

during lytic infection absolutely requires IE72 gene expression. It also suggests that the targeting Palmatine of cellular factors by IE72 is important throughout the different phases of HCMV gene expression during productive infection.”
“In lung transplant patients undergoing immunosuppression, more than one human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genotype may emerge during follow-up, and this could be critical for the outcome of HCMV infection. Up to now, many cases of infection with multiple HCMV genotypes were probably overlooked due to the limitations of the current genotyping approaches. We have now analyzed mixed-genotype infections in 17 clinical samples from 9 lung transplant patients using the highly sensitive ultradeep-pyrosequencing (UDPS) technology. UDPS genotyping was performed at three variable HCMV genes, coding for glycoprotein N (gN), glycoprotein O (gO), and UL139.

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