(C) 2011 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“Study Design

(C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. This is a validation study to evaluate validity and reliability of a translated and culturally adapted Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPAD).

Objective. To conduct a cross-cultural adaptation and check the validity and reliability of a Chinese version of NPAD.

Summary ERK inhibitor cell line of Background Data. Neck pain and its associated disability are very common musculoskeletal problems. NPAD is a reliable evaluation instrument for neck

pain and disability, but there is no availability of a published Chinese version.

Methods. NPAD was translated into Chinese. To examine the psychometric properties and clinical application of the adapted Chinese NPAD, a survey was conducted in a group of 106 patients. The factor structure of NPAD was analyzed and subscales were defined. Reliability assessment was determined by calculating internal consistency and test-retest repeatability. Validity was decided by comparing the Chinese version of SF-36 to NPAD and conducting subscales

comparisons to single SF-36 domains.

Results. Factor analyses demonstrated four subscales for NPAD: “”pain,”" “”disability,”" “”neck-specific function,”" and “”emotional and cognitive influences.”" The internal consistency for “”pain,”" “”disability,”" “”neck-specific function,”" and “”emotional and cognitive influences”" subscales was 0.935, 0.952, 0.955, and 0.910, respectively. Test-retest reliability was also acceptable for the whole scale (r = 0.813, P < 0.001),

Selleck AG-881 GSK2879552 as well as for each of the four subscales. Construct validity was established through comparison with SF-36. All the subscales were significantly correlated with the SF-36 domains, except the items associated with Mental Health and Emotional Role.

Conclusion. The authors report the validation of a Chinese version of NPAD for use in China, which is culturally relevant, reliable, repeatable, and psychometrically sound.”
“Pavlakis M, Hanto DW. Clinical pathways in transplantation: a review and examples from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. ?Clin Transplant 2011 DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0012.2011.01564.x.(C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract: Clinical pathways (CP) have been developed to aid in the management of many surgical and medical conditions. Studies show the benefits of CP on outcomes including reduction in length of stay (LOS), morbidity, costs, and improvement in patient satisfaction (Arch Surg 2008: 394: 31; J Eval Clin Pract 2007: 13: 920; Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000: 126: 322; Circulation 2000: 101: 461; BMC Pulm Med 2006: 6: 22; Int J Health Care Qual Assur 2006: 19: 237; Am J Med Qual 2005: 20: 83; Am J Surg 2006: 192: 399; Am Surg 2005: 71: 152). Reports of CP in solid organ transplantation are lacking, possibly given the complexity of the transplant procedures that entail a complex, multidisciplinary pre-operative evaluation, inpatient, and post-operative time frames.

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