Analysis of the subgroup with exceptionally large differences of

Analysis of the subgroup with exceptionally large differences of basal FSH concentration yielded similar results. Neither high nor low basal serum FSH values were associated with IVF outcome in patients with reduced ovarian reserve and previously determined high basal FSH concentrations. Ovarian stimulation need not be delayed until FSH declines. (C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The objective of this study was to compare the post-warming survival rates of biopsied and non-biopsied day-3 embryos vitrified on day 4 and to evaluate the clinical outcomes of following transfers. This study included 18 preimplantation genetic diagnosis Ispinesib in vivo (PGD) patients and

18 non-PGD patients treated between January 2005 and January 2009 who had not achieved live births during their fresh embryo-transfer cycles and whose surplus embryos were cryopreserved on day 4. The embryo survival rate after warming in the PGD and non-PGD groups was similar (53/59, 89.8% versus 55/64, 85.9%, respectively; difference of 3.9% 95% CI -7.3 to 13.4). Vitrified embryo-transfer

cycles yielded no significant differences between PGD and non-PGD groups in implantation rates (12/46, 26.1% versus 9/47, 19.1%, respectively; difference of 6.9%, 95% CI -9.7 to 22.2), clinical pregnancy rates (11/18, 61.1% versus 9/18, 50%, respectively; difference of 11.1%, 95% CI -20.6 to 40.6) and live birth rates (9/18, 50% versus 6/18, 33.3%, respectively; difference of 16.7%, 95% CI -15.1 to 44.8). These results showed that, in PGD cycles, embryos can be vitrified effectively on day 4 after biopsy on day check details 3. (C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate

microalbuminuria at mid-pregnancy, using the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), as a predictor of pre-eclampsia. Material and Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out on 144 normotensive women, aged < 35 years, body mass index < 25 kg/m2, and live singleton pregnancy between 24 and 28 weeks. In all, the ACR was measured in spot random urine samples. Normoalbuminuria was an ACR of <30 mg/g, whereas microalbuminuria was an ML323 nmr ACR of 30299 mg/g creatinine. All were followed till delivery. Primary outcome was the development of pre-eclampsia. The secondary outcome measures were preterm births and neonatal birthweight. Statistical analysis was done with Fisher’s exact and t-tests. Results: Of all, 77.1% (111/144) had normoalbuminuria and 22.9% (33/144) had microalbuminuria. Of 33 microalbuminuric women, the mean blood pressure was significantly higher in those who subsequently developed pre-eclampsia (P < 0.001). The mean ACR (mg/g) in this cohort was 60.6 +/- 29.4. The mean ACR (mg/g) in women who subsequently developed pre-eclampsia was significantly higher than in women who remained normotensive (P = 0.003). Of 33 microalbuminuric women, 12 (36.

The kinetic model consisting of 76 ordinary differential equation

The kinetic model consisting of 76 ordinary differential equations (76 species, 57 reactions, 105 kinetic parameters) predicted the clotting find more of resting and convulxin-activated human blood as well as predicted T-i of human blood under 50

different initial conditions that titrated increasing levels of TF, Xa, Va, XIa, IXa, and VIIa. Experiments with combined anti-XI and anti-XII antibodies prevented thrombin production, demonstrating that a leak of XIIa past saturating amounts of CTI (and not “”blood-borne TF” alone) was responsible for in vitro initiation without added TF. Clotting was not blocked by antibodies used individually against TF, VII/VIIa, P-selectin, GPIb, protein disulfide isomerase, cathepsin G, nor blocked by the ribosome inhibitor puromycin, the Clk1 kinase inhibitor Tg003, or inhibited VIIa (VIIai). This is the first model to predict the observed behavior of CTI-treated human blood, either resting or stimulated with platelet activators. CTI-treated human blood will clot in vitro due to the combined activity of XIIa and XIa, a process enhanced by platelet activators and which proceeds in the absence of any LCL161 evidence for kinetically significant blood borne tissue

factor.”
“BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation carries a guarded prognosis and is burdened by short-term and long-term complications that affect the airway, lungs, and vasculature. In this

pilot study we aimed to assess the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 8 pediatric patients after lung transplantation.

METHODS: selleck kinase inhibitor The 8 patients in the study were aged between 9 and 17 years and were clinically stable. The scan protocol included MR angiography, phase contrast imaging of the pulmonary arteries and veins, ventricular volumetry, lung parenchyma imaging, and lung volumetry.

RESULTS: This protocol was successfully done in all patients. Lung volumes measured by MRI correlated well with those by body plethysmography (r = 0.83, p = 0.01). Angiography detected caliber differences between the donor and recipient pulmonary arteries in 5 patients. One patient had hemodynamically relevant pulmonary vein stenosis, as evidenced by MR angiography, a reduction in ipsilateral flow, and an abnormal pulmonary venous flow profile. Three patients had mild left (2 patients) or right (1 patient) ventricular systolic dysfunction. One patient had left main bronchus compression, and 3 patients showed varying degrees of pleural thickening.

CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary experience suggests that cardiopulmonary MRI is feasible in pediatric lung transplant recipients and that it provides clinically useful information, especially on the vascular and bronchial anastomoses.


“The


“The Kinase Inhibitor Library ic50 temporal and stationary behavior of protein modification cascades has been extensively studied, yet little is known about the spatial aspects of signal propagation. We have previously shown that the spatial separation of opposing enzymes, such as a kinase and a phosphatase, creates signaling activity gradients. Here we show under what conditions signals stall in the space or robustly propagate through spatially distributed signaling cascades. Robust signal propagation

results in activity gradients with long plateaus, which abruptly decay at successive spatial locations. We derive an approximate analytical solution that relates the maximal amplitude and propagation length of each activation profile with the cascade level, protein diffusivity, and the ratio of the opposing enzyme activities. The control of the spatial signal propagation appears to be very different from the control of transient temporal responses for spatially homogenous cascades. For spatially distributed cascades where activating and deactivating

enzymes operate far from saturation, the ratio of the opposing enzyme activities is shown to be a key parameter controlling signal propagation. The signaling gradients LGX818 inhibitor characteristic for robust signal propagation exemplify a pattern formation mechanism that generates precise spatial guidance for multiple cellular processes and conveys information about the cell size to the nucleus.”
“Purpose: Cancer related fatigue (CRF) is a common problem for cancer patients across diagnoses during chemotherapy and is associated with physical inactivity, Selleck AZD8055 lower functional level and lack of energy. Few RCT exercise intervention studies have included cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether a six-week supervised multimodal exercise intervention, adjunct to chemotherapy and standard care, can reduce the patient’s CRF level.

Methods: Data is based on analyses of a prospective randomised

controlled trial ‘The Body & Cancer Trial’. 213 cancer patients with different diagnoses were randomised into an intervention group or wait-list control group. The primary outcome, Fatigue score (CRF), was evaluated by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anaemia Questionnaire (FACT-An-) (FACT-G score & FACT-An Anemia subscale). Intervention: Supervised exercise, comprising high-intensity cardiovascular and heavy resistance training, relaxation- and body awareness training and massage, 9 h weekly for 6 weeks.

Results: CRF was significantly reduced in the intervention group, corresponding to a Fatigue score reduction of 3.04 (effect size of 0.44, 95% Cl 0.17-0.72) (P = .002), the FACT-An score by 5.40 (P = .015), the FACT-An Toi score by 5.22 (P = .009) and the Anaemia-ANS by 3.76 (P =.002).

However, LCNEC in the case was resistant to the chemotherapy In

However, LCNEC in the case was resistant to the chemotherapy. In our review of published works, ovarian cancer cases with LCNEC show poor prognoses regardless of adjuvant chemotherapy following complete resection. Median overall survival was 10months

in stage I cases. Development of chemotherapy Rigosertib sensitive for LCNEC is needed.”
“Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is composed of a diverse spectrum of hematopoietic stem cell malignancies characterized by ineffective blood cell production. Many MDS patients are dependent on red blood cell (RBC) transfusions for symptomatic management of refractory anemia. Iron overload ensues when the iron acquired from transfused RBCs exceeds body storage capacity, thereby raising the risk for end organ damage. This is of GW-572016 greatest concern in patients with lower-risk MDS whose expected survival is measured in years. Transfusion dependence is associated with shorter survival and an increased risk for progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in transfusion-dependent patients. Application of recent advances in the treatment of MDS can reduce or eliminate the need for transfusions, thus minimizing the risk of iron overload. Case control studies, prospective surveys, and phase II studies indicate that iron chelation therapy

reduces iron load as measured by changes in serum ferritin and may prolong overall survival. Iron chelation strategies include oral agents such as deferasirox (Exjade (R), Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp, East Hanover, NJ), deferiprone (Ferriprox (R), Apotex Europe BV, Leiden, the Netherlands) and, for those patients who are intolerant of or for whom oral therapy is ineffective, parenteral

administration of deferoxamine (Desferal (R), Novartis). This review presents the data related to iron overload in MDS, including its prevalence, diagnosis, clinical impact, and management.”
“Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant impacting even remote environments. In alpine watersheds, glacial meltwater is a source of Hg, which accumulated in glaciers during the 1960-1980 cooling cycle. The considerable variation observed for Hg exposure of alpine animals in proximal watersheds could result from differences among those watersheds in Hg loading from glacial meltwater. Alternatively, variation may be check details the result of hydrology, atmospheric Hg deposition patterns, or food web characteristics. To examine those possibilities, we measured Hg in ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), apex predators in 15 watersheds in western Canada. Mercury levels in feathers of nestlings increased with increasing modeled atmospheric deposition rates and decreased with lake size. In eggs mercury decreased with delta C-13, an indicator of food web structure, and with pH and elevation. Thus, Hg levels in chicks were strongly associated with local patterns relevant when the chicks were growing (e.g.

The assessment of each step is based on its level of transparency

The assessment of each step is based on its level of transparency and efficiency. A comparative view on operating costing and the English costing scheme is given. Results: Advantages of the scheme are low participation hurdles, low calculation AZD7762 purchase effort for G-DRG calculation participants, highly differentiated cost-center/cost category separation, and advanced patient-based resource allocation. The exclusion of relevant capital costs, nontransparent resource allocation, and unclear capital cost modules, limit the managerial relevance and transparency of the capital costing scheme. Conclusions: The scheme generates the

technical premises for a change from dual financing by insurances (operating costs) and state (capital costs) to a single financing source. The new capital costing scheme will intensify the discussion on how to solve the current investment backlog in Germany and can assist regulators in other countries with the introduction of accurate capital costing. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Although SB203580 cost selenium (Se) is not an essential element in plants, Se metabolism in plants is remarkable, mainly for the purpose of phytoremediation and nutritional supplementation of Se. Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) is known as an Se accumulator. In addition to Indian mustard, unique Brassicaceae plants are consumed in Japan. Brassica rapa var. hakabura,

commonly known as nozawana, and Brassica rapa var. peruviridis, commonly known as komatsuna, are typical Brassicaceae plants. In this study, we evaluated the Se-accumulating ability of these unique Brassicaceae plants. There were no significant differences in the Se concentrations in the roots and the leaves of the three Brassicaceae plants. However, nozawana most efficiently accumulated Se among the three Brassicaceae plants because it showed the most rapid growth, resulting in the highest biomass. Speciation

revealed that the Se species accumulated in the three plants were identical. In addition, nozawana contained easily extractable essential selleck products minerals, such as iron, copper, and zinc. Potentialities of nozawana as a source of minerals and the phytoremediation of soil and water contaminated with Se were discussed.”
“Objective: The pathophysiology of migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS) seems to involve inherited mechanism and dysfunction of the dopaminergic system. Previous articles have shown that the frequency of RLS is higher in migraine patients than in controls. We conducted a study to evaluate comorbidities, medication used and depressive symptoms that can explain the relation between migraine and RLS. Methods: A case-control study was performed in which patients with migraine (n=72) and a control group without migraine (n=72) were interviewed. Data including RLS diagnosis, depressive symptoms, comorbidities and drugs used were evaluated. Results: There was a significant association between migraine and RLS (p=0.


“Introduction: To identify the predisposing factors, etiol


“Introduction: To identify the predisposing factors, etiological and clinical characteristics as well as the Fournier’s gangrene (FG) severity index (FGSI) in the outcomes of patients with

FG. Materials and Methods: The data from 71 patients diagnosed with FG in a period of 17 years were retrospectively reviewed for the age of the patient, their history, predisposing factors, etiology, prodromal symptoms, FGSI, culture results, hospitalization period, surgical interventions, responses to the therapy and complications. Results: All of the patients were Caucasian males, and the mean age was 61.3 (range 36-92) years. The mean duration from the onset of symptoms to surgery was 7.5 days. The mean hospitalization time was 27.4 days and the most common etiological factor for FG was a perineal Dorsomorphin concentration abscess. The overall mortality rate was 29.6%. The relationship between the number of predisposing factors and mortality rates in patients

with FG was the most statistically significant parameter (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Multiple predisposing factors predict a poor prognosis and correlate significantly with mortality. Extension of the disease and the FGSI score were not predictive of outcome. The most essential intervention for stopping the rapidly progressing JQ1 Epigenetics inhibitor infectious process of FG consists of early recognition of the disease, proper management of the predisposing factors and aggressive surgical debridement. Such an intervention can improve clinical outcomes. Copyright (c) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“A diode with Sb-doped p-type ZnO, MgZnO/ZnO/MgZnO double heterostructure, and undoped n-type ZnO layers was grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. Hall effect measurement showed that the top p-type Sb-doped ZnO layer has a hole concentration of 1 x 10(17) cm(-3). Mesa geometry light emitting diodes were fabricated with Au/Ni and Au/Ti Ohmic contacts on top of the p-type and

n-type layers, respectively. Ultraviolet emission was achieved, which yielded an output power of 457 nW at 140 mA. The enhancement of the output power is attributed to carrier confinement in the good-quality intrinsic layer of the double heterostructure. The spatial distribution of light Rigosertib emission was characterized. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3598136]“
“This study describes 977 children with imported malaria in England and Wales between 2004 and 2008, focusing on 29 (3.0%) patients admitted to intensive care, of whom 10 had cerebral malaria, 4 required inotropes, and 1 had concurrent septicemia. The remaining 14 were admitted for monitoring only. None died, but 1 child developed cerebellar infarction.”
“Background: Afferents from the urinary tract transmit bladder sensations to the central nervous system. Spinal cord injury (SCI) may affect both efferent motor and afferent sensory pathways.

1% at one year) whereas the least gain was found in a silent roo

1% at one year). whereas the least gain was found in a silent room with the voice coming from straight ahead (11 9% at one year).

Conclusions Pure-tone average gain at one year post-Insertion was

similar to immediate post-insertion gain. BAHA aids speech discrimination most when the voice originates AZD1208 datasheet from the side of the affected ear with confounding noise facing the patient. Speech discrimination gain improves with time, suggesting an underlying learning process The best BAHA gain in speech discrimination occurred with background noise. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The use of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has exponentially increased in the past decade due to their unique physical and chemical properties at nano-scales [1]. They are added to a myriad of materials and compositions. The key question is

not if NPs will enter environmental compartments buy Fludarabine but rather when. The fate and the stability of NPs in the environment play important roles in determining their environmental distributions and probably control the risk to human health through exposure. Emissions of nanomaterials (NMs) could be intentional or unintentional but occur in particulate, aggregate or embedded states.

Despite environmental transformations and changes in their surrounding environment, metallic NPs (M-NPs) tend to exist as stable colloidal aggregates or dispersions. Characterizing NPs and NMs in environmental samples implies determination of their size, their chemical VX-770 Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor composition and their bulk concentrations

in the matrix. Differential size filtration is the most commonly used method to isolate NPs from aqueous matrices. Micro-filtration, nano-filtration, cross-flow filtration, and ultracentrifugation are usually employed to achieve the highest degree of segregation.

Chemical characterization of NPs and NMs has traditionally been done using transmission/scanning electron microscopy (TEM/SEM) followed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). However, because of their intrinsic limitations, methods have also been combined and validated [e.g., size exclusion and ion chromatography (SEC and IC) with multi-element detection (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-MS and ICP-OES)].

This review describes the current state and the challenges of isolating, segregating and detecting M-NPs in environmental samples. A simple case study shows a common procedure for the analysis of NPs in complex aqueous matrices. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Molecular imaging is a novel field in gastroenterology that uses fluorescently labelled probes to specifically highlight neoplastic lesions on the basis of their molecular signature.

56, P <

56, P < https://www.selleckchem.com/products/U0126.html 0.05). Concomitantly, anti-inflammatory IL-10 transcript levels decreased in (TID), relative to increased expression in the absence of TID (P < 0.05). The potential influence of IL-10 was observed upon calculation of individual pro-verses anti-inflammatory mRNA ratios. Stable in the presence of depression, TNF-alpha/IL-10 and IL-1beta/IL-10 mRNA ratios declined significantly over time in its absence (P < 0.05). This study suggests that in chronic HCV infection, upon pegylated IFN administration persistent pro-inflammatory cytokine MRNA expression associates with TID. In contrast, therapeutic activation of mechanisms that decrease pro-inflammatory immunity may protect

against depression during therapy.”
“Background: Existing trials of varenicline have typically excluded smokers with concurrent medical and psychiatric illnesses and no data exist comparing effectiveness of varenicline with combination pharmacotherapy. This study evaluated abstinence and psychiatric outcomes of various tobacco dependence medications, including varenicline.

Methods: Retrospective cohort of 723 smokers, most with significant medical and psychiatric comorbidity, SRT2104 order was evaluated at the UMDNJ-Tobacco Dependence Clinic from 2006 to 2008. Demographics, measures of tobacco

dependence and co-morbidities, and a validated instrument measuring psychological distress (Kessler-6) were obtained. Primary outcome was 7-day point abstinence at 6 months after target quit date.

Results: Cessation medications used included combination pharmacotherapy (39%), single nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion (29%),

and varenicline (23%), with 9% using no medications. Overall, 23% of patients were abstinent at 6 months. In an adjusted regression model, smokers using varenicline or combination medications were more likely abstinent at 6 months than those selleck chemical using no medications (adjusted odds ratio = 2.99; 95% confidence interval = 1.20-7.47 and 2.80; 1.15-6.82, respectively), but not statistically higher than those using single medications (AOR = 1.70). Age, gender, education, marital status, cigarettes per day, time to first cigarette, night smoking, and menthol smoking were not significantly related to abstinence. Varenicline or combination medications did not significantly increase serious psychological distress over the treatment period compared to other medication options.

Conclusions: Both varenicline and combination pharmacotherapy were effective and did not increase psychological distress for up to 6 months in smokers with co-morbidities treated at a specialty clinic. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cellular apoptosis appears to be a constant feature in the adult testis and during early development. This is essential because mammalian spermatogenesis is a complex process that requires precise homeostasis of different cell types.

The diagnostic yield and the differences of the cytology and hist

The diagnostic yield and the differences of the cytology and histology were analysed.

Results:

The evaluation of 45 lesions by EBUS-TBNA revealed that tumour cells were equally detected by both 21G and 22G needles. Two patients of adenocarcinoma Selleckchem Adavosertib were histologically diagnosed only by the 21G needle. Although histological structure was better preserved in five lesions collected by the 21G needle, there was more blood contamination with the 21G needle (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions:

There were no differences in the diagnostic yield between the 21G and 22G needles during EBUS-TBNA. The preserved histological structure of the samples obtained by the 21G needle may be useful for the

diagnosis of mediastinal and hilar adenopathy of unknown aetiology which may be a challenge with the 22G needle.”
“Three field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of sowing date and plant density on phenology, fruit yield and essential oil quality of three anise cultivars Selleckchem THZ1 (Pimpinella anisum L) at two different

ecological conditions Gross-Gerau and Giessen. Germany. The experiments were designed as RCBD under factorial plot arrangement with two factors: cultivars in main plot and plant densities in subplots realized in two sowing dates. Results showed that aniseed sown on April 1st had higher fruit yield in comparison with two weeks delayed sowing. Delayed sowing induced strong effects on yield contributing parameters such as branches/plant, umbels/plant, fruits/plant

and 1000-fruit weight which were all reduced. The highest fruit yield was related to lower plant densities of 39 plants m(-2) (Giessen) and 200 and 374 plants m(-2) (Gross-Gerau). Higher plant density reduced branches/plant, umbel/plant, fruits/plant and 1000-fruit weight and led to lower fruit yield. The essential oil concentration of anise fruits was not affected by different levels of plant densities. A higher concentration see more of essential oil was synthesized in delayed sowing date in Gross-Gerau 2009 as compared to earlier sown anise plants. The essential oil concentration of anise showed no remarkable variation regarding sowing date and plant density. Cv. Hild Samen synthesized a significant higher concentration of estragol and trans-anethole. From all tested cultivars cv. Hild Samen was characterized by lowest fruit yield as well as lowest essential oil concentration. For successful cultivation, aniseed should be sown as soon as possible in April with a plant density of 50-200 plants/m(2) considering soil conditions. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: This study sought to outline the clinical and laboratory characteristics of minimal change disease in adolescents and adults and establish the clinical and laboratory characteristics of relapsing and non-relapsing patients.

Conclusions: Economic downturns in the 2000s did not substantiall

Conclusions: Economic downturns in the 2000s did not substantially influence the national growth trends for hip and knee arthroplasty in the United States. These latest updated projections KU-57788 provide a basis for surgeons, hospitals, payers, and policy makers to plan for the future demand for total joint replacement surgery.”
“Thermally induced phase separation in liquid crystalline polymer (LCP)/polycarbonate (PC) blends was investigated in this study. The LCP used is a main-chain type copolyester comprised of p-hydroxybenoic acid and 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. Specimens for microscopic observation were prepared by melt blending. The specimens were heated

to a preselected temperature, at which they were held for isothermal phase separation. The preselected temperatures used in this study were 265, 290, and 300 degrees C. The LCP contents used were 10, 20, and 50 wt %. These parameters corresponded MEK inhibitor to different

positions on the phase diagram of the blends. The development of the phase-separated morphology in the blends was monitored in real time and space. It was observed that an initial rapid phase separation was followed by the coarsening of the dispersed domains. The blends developed into various types of phase-separated morphology, depending on the concentration and temperature at which phase separation occurred. The following coarsening mechanisms of the phase-separated domains were observed in the late stages of the phase separation in these blends: (i) diffusion and coalescence of the LCP-rich droplets; (ii) vanishing of the PC-rich domains following the evaporation-condensation mechanism; and (iii) breakage and shrinkage of the LCP-rich domains. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 2651-2668, 2010″
“A major challenge

OICR-9429 Epigenetics inhibitor in ecology is forecasting the effects of species’ extinctions, a pressing problem given current human impacts on the planet. Consequences of species losses such as secondary extinctions are difficult to forecast because species are not isolated, but interact instead in a complex network of ecological relationships. Because of their mutual dependence, the loss of a single species can cascade in multiple coextinctions. Here we show that an algorithm adapted from the one Google uses to rank web-pages can order species according to their importance for coextinctions, providing the sequence of losses that results in the fastest collapse of the network. Moreover, we use the algorithm to bridge the gap between qualitative (who eats whom) and quantitative (at what rate) descriptions of food webs. We show that our simple algorithm finds the best possible solution for the problem of assigning importance from the perspective of secondary extinctions in all analyzed networks.