They demand a toxinological explanation.
Bites by several genera of African, Asian and Australasian tarantulas can cause systemic neurotoxic envenoming. In the absence of available antivenom, severe persistent muscle spasms, reminiscent of latrodectism, pose a serious therapeutic challenge. Discovery of the toxin responsible would be of scientific and potential clinical benefit. Tarantula keepers should be warned of the danger of handling these animals incautiously.”
“Melanopsin (OPN4) is a photosensitive pigment originally found in a subtype of retinal ganglion cells and is a 7-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Several previous reports showed that ectopic expression of OPN4 can be used as an optogenetic tool to control check details neural and cellular activities in
various tissues. Compared with other optogenetic pigments, OPN4 is more sensitive to light, shows long-lasting activation, and can also control intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. Here, we review how the ectopic expression of OPN4 enables the control of neural and cellular activities in vivo. In the retina, the ectopic expression of melanopsin Selleck NU7026 in retinal ganglion cells successfully restored the vision of blind mice. It has also been reported that ectopic expression of melanopsin in orexin/hypocretin neurons enabled control of wakefulness in mice by blue light. In addition to neural activity, the ectopic expression of OPN4 has been reported to enable circuit control of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) to enhance blood-glucose homeostasis in mice. We discuss the possibility of optogenetic control of other systems through the ectopic expression of OPN4. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: Surgical management of tricuspid valve regurgitation
mainly consists of tricuspid valve annuloplasty, usually performed with implantation of a rigid ring or a flexible band.
Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis on 820 patients who underwent tricuspid valve repair between March 2002 and July 2009 with either a flexible Cosgrove-Edwards Liproxstatin-1 ic50 band (n = 415; Edwards Lifesciences LLC, Irvine, Calif) or a rigid Carpentier-Edwards Classic annuloplasty ring (n = 405; Edwards Lifesciences). Mean patient age was 69.2 +/- 9.5 years, 54.1% were female, and average logistic EuroSCORE was 13.3% +/- 12.5%. Concomitant procedures were performed in 94.6% of patients (mitral valve surgery, 80.6%; aortic valve surgery, 28.2%; coronary artery bypass grafting, 24.5%; atrial fibrillation ablation, 44.5%). One fifth of the operations were reoperative procedures. Follow-up was 94% complete, with mean duration of 21.0 +/- 19.0 months.
Results: Thirty-day mortality was 10.1% (Cosgrove-Edwards, 11.9%; Carpentier-Edwards, 8.4%), and 5-year survival was 62.4% (Carpentier-Edwards, 64.7%; Cosgrove-Edwards, 60.3%).