In contrast, we observed during the summer period an increase in the apparent richness when viruses were the exclusive mortality agents (i.e. the number of detectable bands) giving support to the “”killing the winner hypothesis”". The stimulation
of bacterial diversity in the presence of viruses was also reported in other lacustrine systems by Weinbauer et al.  and other experimental studies performed in coastal marine systems observed the same trend [18, 22]. However, the relative stability of the apparent richness during early spring experiments, in treatment V, highlighted the seasonal variability of virus effects on bacterial diversity. This high variable impact of viruses upon bacterial community structure, already reported by Hewson and Fuhrman , could suggest the influence of stochastic processes. Since no decrease in the number of bands was observed in either treatment VF or VFA, our result could AZD3965 mouse not support the hypothesis of Miki and Yamamura
 according to whom grazing on infected cells “”Kills the killer of the winner”" and thus reduces bacterial species richness. In some cases, the combined effect of viruses and flagellates on bacterial SC75741 nmr fingerprint diversity was more consistent than the effect of viruses alone, suggesting that both predators acted additively Emricasan manufacturer to sustain apparent richness. According to Zhang et al.  the ‘killing the winner’ hypothesis is mediated by both predators and not just by one type of predator (viruses). Thus, all predators (viruses and flagellates) could act additively in controlling the winners of the competition for resources and caused an increase in detectable phylotypes. In addition, stimulation of bacterial production and related viral lysis also suggested input of nutrients and substrates from
grazing and lysis activities which may Florfenicol decrease the competition pressure within bacterial community, thereby increasing the competitiveness of the minor phylotypes . The effect of both predators on the bacterial diversity was not apparent in all experiments, suggesting more variability and complexity in the interactions between bacterial diversity, viruses and grazers than hitherto assumed. Diverse patterns between predators and bacterial diversity were reported in other studies [18, 19, 55]. Such variability could be explained by the change in the balance between bacterial production and protistan grazing  or to chaotic behaviour due to competition among predators for the same prey . Overall, previous work performed in both Lakes Annecy and Bourget, indicated that the strong complexity of the combined physico-chemical and biological parameters (with a larger effect of abiotic factors) is mainly responsible for the evolution of the bacterial community structure . Conclusion Many forms of interaction exist between the various components of the microbial loop including the viruses.