RAR

RAR P5091 price beta(-/-) mutant mice, which lacked such enlarged compartment, displayed complex alternations of dopamine agonist-induced stereotypic motor behavior, including exaggeration of head bobbing movement and reduction of rearing activity. RAR beta signaling thus plays a crucial role in setting up striatal compartments that may engage in neural circuits of psychomotor control.”
“The clinical spectrum of renal dysplasia includes the non-functioning multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK). We report our experience of the outcome of unilateral MCDK and

its contralateral kidney in 101 children with the diagnosis of MCDK from 1985 to 2009. Data collected included urine protein/creatinine ratio, estimated GFR (eGFR), blood pressure, surgical intervention, renal length and abnormalities of the contralateral kidney, and the involution rate. There was a predominance of left-sided MCDK. Diagnosis was made prenatally in 86.7%. Contralateral abnormalities

included vesicoureteral reflux (16.8%), UPJ obstruction (4.1%), and megaureter (2.4%). Complete involution of MCDK occurred within 5 years in 60%. Compensatory hypertrophy of the contralateral kidney to Cl-amidine in vitro > 97% occurred in 74.1%. Nephrectomy was performed in 19.8%. There was an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage a parts per thousand yen2, and hypertension in those with contralateral abnormalities (p < 0.0001; p < 0.001 respectively). In those without contralateral abnormalities, hyperfiltration with mean eGFR of 149 +/- 13 ml/min/1.73 m(2) was seen in

32% and proteinuria in 9.8%. There was a significantly inverse relationship between proteinuria and eGFR (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, children with contralateral abnormalities are at risk for developing decreased kidney function, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/PD-173074.html whereas a substantial number of patients with no obvious contralateral abnormalities have markers of renal injury. Therefore, systematic follow-up of all patients is recommended.”
“Results of kidney transplantation are excellent, but the number of patients on the waiting lists far exceeds the number of available organs. Living kidney donation must be considered as an important part of organ transplantation programmes. In the European Union countries, nearly 20% of all kidney transplants in 2010 were done with organs from living donors. However, the proportion of live donor kidney transplantation between EU countries varies greatly: from 3% to 54% of all kidney transplantations.\n\nMultiple initiatives have been undertaken in most of the European countries to increase the number of living donor kidney transplantations.

It is assumed that both species (i e , either predators and their

It is assumed that both species (i.e., either predators and their prey, or the two competing species) are mobile and their dispersal between patches is directed to the higher buy Dinaciclib fitness patch. It is proved that such dispersal, irrespectively of its speed, cannot destabilize a locally stable predator-prey population equilibrium that corresponds to no movement at all. In the case of two competing species,

dispersal can destabilize population equilibrium. Conditions are given when this cannot happen, including the case of identical patches.”
“A new series of 2-aralkynyl-N-6-methyl-MECAs 10-13 were synthesized and evaluated in radioligand binding studies and in a new Eu-GTP functional assay that provides a powerful alternative to radioisotope use. The new compounds possess high affinity and selectivity for the AA(3)R with N-6-methyl-2-phenylethynylMECA (10) showing a subnanomolar affinity MK-4827 in vitro and about 100000-fold selectivity vs AA(1)R and AA(2A)R.

Furthermore, the new nucleosides showed to be full agonists, the N-6-methyl-2-(2-pyridinyl)-ethynylMECA (13) being the most potent in the series.”
“Reactive oxygen species are mostly viewed to cause oxidative damage to various cells and induce organ dysfunction after ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, they are also considered as crucial molecules for cellular signal transduction in biology. NADPH oxidase, whose only function is reactive oxygen species production, has been extensively investigated in many cell types especially

phagocytes. The deficiency of NADPH oxidase extends the process of inflammation and delays tissue repair, which causes chronic granulomatous disease in patients. NADPH oxidase 1, one member of the NADPH oxidase family, is not only constitutively expressed in a variety of tissues, but also induced to increase expression in both mRNA and protein levels under many circumstances. NADPH oxidase 1 and its derived reactive oxygen species are suggested to be able to regulate inflammation reaction, cell proliferation and migration, and extracellular matrix synthesis, which contribute to the processes of tissue injury and repair.”
“Objective: https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Vorinostat-saha.html Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and disabling disease frequently effects physical and psychological well being. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of psychological status on health related quality of life in patients with RA and also to assess which quality of life (QoL) instrument – disease specific and generic – is more prone to this effect.\n\nMethods: A total of 421 patients with RA recruited from joint database of five tertiary centers. Depression and anxiety risks were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and quality of life assessed by Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQoL), Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) and The Short Form 36 (SF 36) questionnaire.

According to our comprehensive assessment of drought tolerance, i

According to our comprehensive assessment of drought tolerance, it is shown that “ST21916″ is more tolerant to drought than the other two cultivars.

Therefore, our results suggest that “ST21916″ may be more suitable for planting in arid and semi-arid regions.”
“ObjectiveModels based on the Krogh-cylinder concept are developed to analyze the washout from tissue by blood flow of an inert diffusible solute that permeates blood vessel walls. During the late phase of washout, the outflowing solute concentration decays exponentially with time. This washout decay rate is predicted for a range of conditions. MethodsA single capillary is assumed to lie on the axis of a cylindrical LDC000067 in vitro tissue region. In the classic Krogh-cylinder approach, a no-flux boundary condition is applied on the outside of the cylinder. An alternative infinite-domain selleck chemicals llc approach is proposed that allows for solute exchange across the boundary, but with zero net exchange. Both models

are analyzed, using finite-element and analytical methods. ResultsThe washout decay rate depends on blood flow rate, tissue diffusivity and vessel permeability of solute, and assumed boundary conditions. At low blood flow rates, the washout rate can exceed the value for a single well-mixed compartment. The infinite-domain approach predicts slower washout decay rates than the Krogh-cylinder approach. ConclusionsThe infinite-domain approach overcomes a significant limitation of the Krogh-cylinder approach, while retaining its simplicity. It provides a basis for developing methods to deduce transport properties of inert solutes from observations of washout decay rates.”
“The rostral migratory stream (RMS) is the main pathway by which newly born subventricular zone (SVZ) cells reach the olfactory bulb (OB) in rodents. This migration has been well studied in vivo, but an organotypic in vitro model would facilitate more experimental investigations. Here we introduce a slice culture preparation of Sapitinib manufacturer the rat forebrain including en suite the rostral part

of the lateral ventricle, the RMS and the OB. The preparation was validated with regard to endogenous cell proliferation and migration by tracking bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labelled cells in newly established and 3 and 6 week old cultures. For testing the migratory abilities of exogenous precursor cells, rat SVZ neurospheres and human neural (HNS1 cells) and mesenchymal (hMSC-TERT) stem cell lines were micrografted to the rostral SVZ of 1 and 7 day old cultures. Two weeks later graft derivatives were identified by immunohistochemical staining for human nuclei (HNS1/hMSC-TERT cells) and BrdU (HNS1 cells/neurospheres). Numerous HNS1 cells and BrdU-positive neurosphere cells were found in the RMS. Having reached the OB, subpopulations of the cells expressed the astroglial markers glial fibrillary acidic protein/hAM and the neuronal markers NeuN/tyrosine hydroxylase.

In this prospective study we interviewed 200 adult patients with

In this prospective study we interviewed 200 adult patients with newly diagnosed, active pulmonary tuberculosis treated at the Institute for Selleckchem Fludarabine Pulmonary Diseases of Vojvodina, Sremska Kamenica, Serbia (July, 2006-June, 2008). The information for analysis was obtained from two questionnaires

and patients’ medical records.

The majority of the patients, 158 (79%), were male, with a mean age of 49 years (+/- 15.4). Most of the patients knew that tuberculosis is an infectious disease (n=188, 92%), but they were unaware of the cause (n=84, 42%). The patients with a higher education level (61.2% vs. 90%, p=0.03), satisfactory living conditions (88.7% vs. 63.2%, p=0.02), and higher economic status (78.4% vs. 100%, p=0.04) demonstrated more knowledge about the disease. Half of the patients (n=98, 49%) believed that concomitant diseases (HIV, tumors) might contribute to the genesis of tuberculosis.

Patients with tuberculosis demonstrated good knowledge of their disease. Patients with higher socioeconomic status and education level were more knowledgeable about their disease.”
“We investigated one-lung ventilation (OLV) in pediatric patients under 10 kg. The feasibility of OLV using either Arndt endobronchial blocker (AEB) or mainstem

intubation technique is analyzed. Vorinostat manufacturer Arterial blood gases (ABG) monitored throughout the procedures are presented.

Following IRB approval, a retrospective chart review was conducted on 9 patients a parts per thousand currency sign6 months of age and 2 patients a parts per thousand yen12 months of age undergoing lung resections or aortic coarctations. For right thoracotomy, Akt inhibitor a conventional, cuffed, endotracheal tube (ETT) was inserted and guided into the left mainstem bronchus with a bronchoscope and the left lung was ventilated. For left thoracotomy, an AEB was inserted into the trachea 2 cm past the vocal cords and an ETT was placed through the cords adjacent to the blockers (extraluminal). A bronchoscope was then inserted through the ETT to visualize and manipulate the blocker into the left mainstem bronchus. The blocker

cuff was inflated slowly under direct vision while the ETT continued to ventilate the right, dependent lung. ABG values were collected intraoperatively in all cases.

One-lung ventilation could be accomplished within 15 min in all cases, and lung isolation was successful in all patients. All patients were extubated within 12 h of surgery and had an uneventful recovery. ABG values revealed modest arterial acidosis and hypercarbia and mild acute ventilatory insufficiency.

The use of extraluminal AEB or mainstem intubation for OLV can be successfully completed in infants weighing less than 10 kg. OLV may induce acute respiratory pathology; therefore we recommend routine intraoperative ABG monitoring for pediatric patients.”
“We report the first case of Weissella confusa bacteremia in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient.

Treatments for LMM include different combinations of surgery, che

Treatments for LMM include different combinations of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There is an impression that LMM may have a better outcome than the commoner diffuse form Citarinostat mouse of malignant mesothelioma that has been reported to have a survival between 8 and 14 months. In order to advise our patients on prognosis, we studied the duration of survival after surgical resection of LMM. A total of 150 papers were found, of which 16 represented the best evidence

to answer the question. The authors, journal, date, country of publication, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. It is difficult to combine the results of these 16 papers because both treatments and results are reported differently. Some report median

survival (range: 11.6-36 months) and others disease-free survival (range: 0 months to 11 years). Median survival to the longest follow-up was 29 months when calculated by pooling data from informative papers using the Kaplan-Meier method. Our review suggests that survival in LMM is longer than that generally quoted for the more common diffuse form of malignant mesothelioma. Hence, aggressive treatment of LMM may be reasonable in appropriate patients.”
“Greater impairment in Smoothened Agonist ic50 autoregulation is seen in male versus female piglets following fluid percussion injury (FPI). This is partially mediated by a Repotrectinib purchase greater upregulation of extracellular signal-related kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK MAPK). We hypothesized that these trends would be reflected by the pressure reactivity index (PRx), a clinical measure of autoregulation. We further hypothesized that PRx values would correlate well with pial artery dilatory responses to hypotension. Male and female piglets were subjected to FPI and treated with a vehicle or ERK MAPK antagonist U 0126

(1 mg/kg IV) 30 min post-injury. FPI led to upregulation of CSF ERK MAPK in untreated piglets of both sexes, however significantly higher PRx values were seen in male versus female piglets. Following administration of U 0126, elevation of ERK MAPK levels was blocked in both sexes and PRx values were significantly improved in the male. A strong correlation was seen between the PRx and pial artery vasomotor activity. These data support previous observations that male piglets demonstrate reversible ERK MAPK-mediated impairment in autoregulation following FPI, which is reflected by the PRx. The strong correlation between the PRx and pial artery vasomotor activity supports the practice of continuously monitoring cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients using this index.”
“Dermatophytes have the ability to form molecular attachments to keratin and use it as a source of nutrients, colonizing keratinized tissues, including the stratum corneum of the skin. Malassezia species also affect the stratum corneum of the skin.

000, r = +0 735) MPV levels showed positive correlation with dis

000, r = +0.735). MPV levels showed positive correlation with disease duration (p = 0.01, r FDA approved Drug Library = 0.518). MPV levels are increased in patients with psoriasis and PsA. MPV may be a marker for the severity of psoriasis. This study may confirm previous observation indicating increased platelet activation in psoriasis. Increased platelet activity could contribute to increasing the atherosclerotic risk in patients with psoriasis and PsA.”
“Knowledge of the natural course and especially the total and cause-specific mortality of community-acquired chronic HCV infection is limited. The aims of our study were to determine the total and cause-specific mortality in patients infected

with chronic hepatitis C in a community-based setting in northern Norway. This prospective cohort study included 1010 HCV-positive patients diagnosed with recombinant immunoblot assay between 1 January 1990 and 1 January 2000, with a median observation time from diagnosis to follow-up of 7 years. Data were collected from medical records in the period between 1 January 2004 and 30 June 2006. Time and cause of death were ascertained from the Norwegian Causes of Death Register. Age-adjusted

death rates and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were compared with those of the general Norwegian population. In total, 122 deaths were recorded. The learn more Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival was 88% at 14 years. The SMR in the cohort relative to the general population was 6.66. Most of the excess deaths in both genders were because of liver-related causes, those associated with a drug-using lifestyle and suicide. The statistically significant increase in SMRs ranged from 4.2 for death by cancer in women to 64.6 for liver

disease in women. There was no statistically significant increase in SMRs from cardiovascular disease in either gender or from cancer in men. In conclusion, our study shows that the death rate in patients infected with hepatitis C is 6.66 times higher than in the general Norwegian population.”
“For the purpose of providing for a theoretical click here background for the study of electromagnetic fields generated by precursory effects of earthquakes, the problem of transmission and total reflection at the earth-atmosphere interface is investigated in detail for a subhertz plane electromagnetic wave incident from the earth’s crust. The term “”subhertz”" means “”below 1 Hz.”" First, for the special case of normal incidence, the overall power transmission coefficient at the earth-atmosphere interface is found to take a maximum value at a definite frequency f(0) which is inversely proportional to the square of the depth of a virtual hypocenter. A typical value of f(0) falls around 0.01 Hz. For oblique incidence as well, this feature of the overall power transmission coefficient is retained except in the vicinity of the critical angle of incidence for the H-wave.

Methods Thoracic segment indices derived from 3D reconstructions

Methods. Thoracic segment indices derived from 3D reconstructions of coronal and sagittal standing radiographs of 172 see more patients with right thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, reviewed by the 3D Classification Committee of the Scoliosis Research Society, were analyzed using the ISOData unsupervised clustering algorithm. Four curve indices were analyzed: Cobb angle, axial rotation of the apical vertebrae, orientation of the plane of maximum curvature of the main thoracic curve, and kyphosis (T4-T12). No assumptions were made regarding grouping tendencies in the data nor were the number of clusters predefined.

Results. Three primary groups were revealed wherein kyphosis and the orientation

of the PMC of the main thoracic curve were the major

discriminating factors with slight overlap between groups. A small group (G1) of 22 patients having smaller, nonsurgical (minor) curves was identified. Although the remaining patients had similar Cobb angles they were split into 2 groups (G2: 79 patients; G3: 71 patients) with different PMC (G2: 65 degrees-81 degrees; G3: 76 degrees-104 degrees) and kyphotic measures (G2: 23 degrees-43 degrees; G3: 7 degrees-25 degrees).

Conclusion. Two distinct subgroups within the surgical cases (major curves) of Lenke type-1 curves were found thus suggesting that thoracic curves are buy Vorinostat not always hypokyphotic. The ISOData cluster analysis technique helped to capture inherent 3D structural curve complexities that were not evident in a 2D radiographic plane. The daVinci representation is a new clinically relevant means to report 3D spinal deformities.”
“Dystonia is a rare manifestation of multiple sclerosis

(MS), but it always interferes with the functional performance and quality of life. We report a rare case of long-lasting paroxysmal dystonia associated with MS. The patient was a 40-year-old woman with relapsing-remitting MS for 6 years. During the latest attack of MS, she suffered from long-lasting paroxysmal dystonia in her left HIF activation hand. Despite treatment with pulse high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone, interferon, and baclofen, along with occupational therapy, the dystonia persisted and significantly bothered her daily activities. Finally, she was treated with oral acetazolamide (250 mg, three times a day for 4 days), which was very effective for the control of her dystonia. The dystonic movement subsided without recurrence in a follow-up of 17 months. We advocate this effective and safe treatment for patients with paroxysmal dystonia associated with MS.”
“Rapid on-site monitoring of heavy metals in plants is necessary to minimize the exposure of humans to the contaminated food. The potential of using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) for simultaneous determination of cadimium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in rice was evaluated.

The A(260/280) absorbance ratios of isolated DNA were approximate

The A(260/280) absorbance ratios of isolated DNA were approximately 1.7-1.9, demonstrating that the DNA fraction is pure and can be used for analysis. Additionally, the A(260/230) values were higher than 1.6, demonstrating negligible contamination by polysaccharides. The DNA isolated by this protocol is of sufficient quality for molecular applications; this technique could U0126 MAPK inhibitor be applied to other organisms that have similar substances

that hinder DNA extraction. The main advantages of the method are that the mycelium is directly recovered from culture medium and it does not require the use of expensive and specialized equipment.”
“Epilepsy clinical, academic, and human service professionals (N=101) were surveyed regarding the challenges people with epilepsy face managing their condition. 30% of the respondents had personal experience with epilepsy. Interviews were transcribed and coded into themes. Response differences by profession and personal experience were examined using chi-squared tests. The two greatest challenges reported most frequently for people with epilepsy were finding high GSK3326595 cell line quality

health care and managing psychological and emotional effects. The two most important epilepsy outcomes were seizure control and quality of life. The two greatest challenges facing clinicians were too little time with patients and limited clinical focus. The two main weaknesses in the field were insufficient research and narrow approaches to addressing epilepsy. Significant differences in responses across professions were evident as were differences according to personal experience with epilepsy. Few clinicians cited quality of care as a major challenge (p<0.0001) compared to other professions. Few respondents with personal experience with epilepsy cited stigma as a challenge (p=0.006). (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“SOX2, a universal marker of pluripotent stem cells, is a transcription factor that helps control embryonic development in vertebrates; its expression persists in neural stem/progenitor cells into adulthood.

Considering the critical role of the SOX2 transcription factor in the regulation of genes required for self-renewal find more and pluripotency of stem cells, we developed and characterized SOX2-overexpressing NT2/D1 cell clones. Using Southern blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed integration and expression of exogenous SOX2 in three NT2/D1 cell clones. Overexpression of the SOX2 gene was detected in two of these clones. SOX2 overexpression in NT2/D1 cell clones resulted in altered expression of key pluripotency genes OCT4 and NANOG. Furthermore, SOX2-overexpressing NT2/D1 cell clones entered into retinoic acid-dependent neural differentiation, even when there was elevated SOX2 expression.

The relationships between the oil cell ontogeny and oil accumulat

The relationships between the oil cell ontogeny and oil accumulation with essential oil yields and compositions were systematically analyzed. www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk2126458.html The results indicated that the

leaves of the 2-year-old branch had the highest density of oil cells (6.91 n/mm(2)) and the maximum percentage of oil cells at the oil saturation stage (48.05%), which coincided with the highest oil yield (2.12%) and trans-cinnamaldehyde content (66.47%). The oils were less accumulated in the 1-4 leaves of annual branch and were mostly disintegrated in the leaves of 4 years old branch, therefore the lower percentages of oil cells at oil saturation stage (6.72 and 33.71%, respectively) resulted in the lower oil yields (1.01 and 0.54%, respectively) and lower percentages of trans-cinnamaldehyde (57.89% and 61.57%, respectively). Curve fitting of the FT-IR results agreed with that of the GC-MS analysis. These results can provide reference information for the rational utilization of cinnamon resources and harvest of cassia leaves. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose

Dense breasts have been suggested as a risk factor for breast cancer, but controversy still

remains. This study evaluates the association of reproductive and hormonal factors with dense breasts among Korean women.

Materials and Methods

Using a cross-sectional design, 516 women were recruited and classified for breast density PRIMA-1MET in vivo patterns as being either fatty or dense, using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) of the American College

of Radiology. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis.

Results

In univariate EPZ 6438 logistic regression, older age, higher body mass index, older age at menarche, and oral contraceptive use were associated with more fatty breasts. On the contrary, longer duration of education, alcohol consumption, lower parity, menopause and use of hormone replacement therapy were associated with dense breasts. After adjustment, age and body mass index were inversely associated with breast density (p-value for trend < 0.01, respectively), whereas nulliparous and premenopausal status were positively associated. Compared to women who had >= 2 children, nulliparous women had an 11.8-fold increase of dense breasts (p-value for trend < 0.01). Compared to postmenopausal women, premenopausal women had 2.4-fold increase of dense breasts (odds ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.36 to 4.32).

Conclusion

Young age, lower body mass index, lower parity, and premenopausal status were significantly associated with dense breasts in Korea.”
“During performance of direct laryngoscopy in the difficult-to-visualize airway, several maneuvers have the potential to impact glottic visualization, including jaw thrust and cricoid pressure.

The other two hypotheses invoke stronger constraints The state s

The other two hypotheses invoke stronger constraints. The state selection hypothesis states that when a system can attain multiple

steady states, the stable state will show the highest entropy production rate. The gradient response principle requires that when the thermodynamic gradient increases, the system’s new stable state should always be accompanied by a higher entropy production rate. We test these three hypotheses by Stem Cell Compound Library applying them to a set of conventional food web models. Each time, we calculate the entropy production rate associated with the stable state of the ecosystem. This analysis shows that the first hypothesis holds for all the food webs tested: the living state shows always an increased entropy production over the abiotic state. In contrast, the state selection and gradient response hypotheses break down when the food web incorporates more than one trophic level, indicating that they are not generally valid.”
“Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that the occurrence of oxidative stress leads to melanocyte degeneration

in vitiligo. Elevated level of dopamine (DA), an initiator of oxidative stress, reportedly is found in patients with vitiligo and induces melanocyte death in vitro. DA-treated melanocytes have been used CX-6258 supplier as a model to search for antioxidants for treating vitiligo.

Objective: We investigated the protective effects of apigenin against DA-induced apoptosis in melanocytes and the molecular mechanism underlying those effects.

Methods: Melanocytes with or without pretreatment with apigenin were exposed to DA. Then cell viabilities were measured by MTT assay. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the percentage of apoptotic cells were detected by flow cytometry analysis. Activation of caspase 3, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and oxidative stress-related signaling, including p38, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt, were assessed by Western blotting.

Results: Apigenin attenuated DA-induced apoptotic cell death, relieved ROS accumulation and activated caspase 3 and PARP, suggesting the protective effects of apigenin against DA-induced oxidative stress and selleck products apoptosis in melanocytes.

Moreover, DA induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK and Akt, while inhibitors of p38, JNK and Akt significantly decreased DA-induced apoptosis. However, pretreatment with apigenin significantly inhibited DA-triggered activation of p38, JNK and Akt, suggesting the involvement of p38, JNK and Akt in the protective effects of apigenin against DA-induced cytotoxicity.

Conclusion: These results suggest that apigenin attenuates dopamine-induced apoptosis in melanocytes via oxidative stress-related p38. JNK and Akt signaling and therefore could be a potential agent in treating vitiligo. (C) 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Alcohol abuse in the adult is often preceded by high alcohol consumption during adolescence.