Tumor tissue was homogenized by the use of a homogenizer

Tumor tissue was homogenized by the use of a homogenizer

at 4°C in buffer (30 mM NaHCO3, pH 7.1) with freshly added protease inhibitor phenyl-methylsulfonyl fluoride (0.5 mM). The homogenate was centrifuged at 10,000 g for 30 min at 4°C and the supernatant was then centrifuged at 100,000 g at 4°C for 2 h. The resulting supernatant was dialyzed against 20 mM Tris-HCl and 150 mM NaCl, pH 7.2, and then was applied to Sephacryl S-200HR. Bovine serum albumin was used as a molecular indicator in a pilot experiment to map Caspase Inhibitor VI the range of eluted fractions. The tumor supernatant protein was eluted with the same sample loading buffer. The collected fractions of eluted protein underwent SDS-PAGE. The fractions of #3 to #6 contained proteins of about 40-200 kDa. The combination of these 4 fractions was used as the mHSP/Ps vaccine. The identity of proteins in this combination was assayed using SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis with antibodies specific to various HSPs. In vivo antitumor experiments To evaluate the antitumor activity of the mHSP/Ps preparation, mice were divided into 6 groups for GSK1210151A cell line treatment (n = 10 mice each): 1) normal saline control, 2) ACP-196 chemical structure mHSP/Ps, 3) CY plus IL-12, 4) mHSP/Ps plus IL-12,

5) mHSP/Ps plus CY, 6) mHSP/Ps plus Cy plus IL-12. All mice were subcutaneously injected in the back with 5 × 104 S180 cells. One day later, groups Groups 2, 4, 5, and 6 mice were vaccinated 3 times at 7-day intervals with 20 μg of mHSP/Ps. Groups 5 and 6 received 2

mg of CY intraperitoneally 1 day after the last vaccination. Groups 4 and 6 mice were subcutaneously Leukotriene-A4 hydrolase injected with IL-12, 100 ng/day, for 5 days, 3 days after a CY injection. Group 3 mice received CY plus IL-12 at the same time as Group 6, but the treatment started on day 16. The antitumor effects were evaluated by tumor volume, tumor growth inhibition rates, metastasis rate and overall survival time. Tumor volume was determined by the measurement of the shortest (A) and longest diameter (B) using a caliper once every 3 days. The volume (V) was calculated by the formula V = (A2B/2). Curative survival was considered to occur when the tumor did not regrow or disappeared after more than 3 months. Lungs, liver and brains of dead mice were removed and fixed in formalin, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned at 5 μm. Hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) stained samples were examined under a light microscope (Olympus). Analysis of immune response Treatment of mice for analysis of immune responses was the same as that for immunotherapy. Three days after the combined therapy of mHSP/Ps and CY plus IL-12, all mice were killed, and blood and spleen samples were collected. Mice from various control groups were killed at the same time.

O157 cell pellet and lysate fractions from Experiment I (LB, dRF,

O157 cell pellet and lysate fractions from Experiment I (LB, dRF, fRF) were concentrated using spin filters (MW cutoff 5000 Daltons), and digested with trypsin prior to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as described previously [17]. The enzymatically-digested samples were injected onto a capillary trap (LC Packings Acadesine ic50 PepMap) and desalted for 5 min with a flow rate of 3 μl/min of 0.1% v/v acetic acid. The samples were loaded onto an LC Packing® C18 Pep Map nanoflow HPLC column. The elution gradient of the HPLC column started at 3% solvent B, 97% solvent A and finished at 60% solvent B, 40% solvent

A for 95 min selleck chemical for protein identification. Solvent A consisted of 0.1% v/v acetic acid, 3% v/v acetonitrile (ACN), and 96.9% v/v H2O. Solvent B consisted of 0.1% v/v acetic acid, 96.9% v/v ACN, and 3% v/v H2O. LC-MS/MS analysis was carried out on a hybrid quadrupole-TOF mass spectrometer (QSTAR

elite, Applied Biosystems, Framingham, MA). The focusing potential and ion spray voltage was set to 225 V and 2400 V, respectively. The information-dependent acquisition (IDA) mode of operation was employed GSK1210151A clinical trial in which a survey scan from m/z 400–1800 was acquired followed by collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the four most intense ions. Survey and MS/MS spectra for each IDA cycle were accumulated for 1 and 3 s, respectively. Tandem mass spectra were extracted by ABI Analyst version 2.0. All MS/MS samples were analyzed using Mascot (Matrix Science, London, UK; version 2.2.2). Mascot was set up to search NCBI with taxonomy Bacteria database assuming the digestion enzyme trypsin. Mascot was searched with a fragment ion mass tolerance of 0.50 Da and a parent ion tolerance of 0.50 Da. Iodoacetamide derivative of Cys, deamidation of Asn and Gln, oxidation of Met, were specified in Mascot as variable modifications. Scaffold (version Scaffold-03-3-2, Proteome

Software Inc., Portland, OR) was used to validate MS/MS based peptide and protein identifications. Peptide identifications were accepted if they could be established at greater than 95.0% probability as specified by the Peptide Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase Prophet algorithm [22]. Protein identifications were accepted if they could be established at greater than 99.0% probability and contained at least 2 identified unique peptides. Proteins with single peptide hits were included if they exhibited high confidence based on low false discovery rates [23]. Relative protein abundance was estimated using the normailized total spectral counts [24]. Protein probabilities were assigned using the Protein Prophet algorithm [25]. Proteins that contained similar peptides and could not be differentiated based on MS/MS analysis alone were grouped to satisfy the principles of parsimony.

Oncogene 2004, 23:7047–7052 PubMedCrossRef 87 Hu Y, Cherton-Horv

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-unsaturates biofilms. Microb Ecol 2002,43(4):416–423.PubMedCrossRef 45. Winkler UK, Stuckmann M: Glycogen, hyaluronate, and some other polysaccharides selleck chemicals greatly enhance the formation of exolipase by Serratia marcescens . J Bacteriol 1979,138(3):663–670.PubMed 46. Körstgens V, Flemming HC, Wingender J, Borchard W: Influence of calcium ions on the mechanical properties of a model biofilm of mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Water Sci Technol 2001,43(6):49–57.PubMed 47. Rosenau F, Isenhardt S, Gdynia A, Tielker D, Schmidt E, Tielen P, Schobert M, Jahn D, Wilhelm S, Jaeger KE: Lipase LipC affects motility, biofilm formation and rhamnolipid production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa . FEMS Microbiol Lett 2010,309(1):25–34.PubMed 48. Strathmann M, Wingender J, Flemming HC: Application of fluorescently labelled lectins for the visualization and biochemical characterization of polysaccharides in biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa . J Microbiol Methods 2002,50(3):237–248.PubMedCrossRef 49. Schürks N, Wingender J, Flemming HC, Mayer C: Monomer composition and sequence

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M: Biofilms and extracellular matrices C59 purchase on geomaterils. Environ Geol 2004, 46:429–435.CrossRef 52. Leza A, Plameros B, Garcia JO, Galindo E, Sobéron-Chávez G: Xanthomonas campstris as a host for the production of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipase. J Ind Microbiol 1996, 16:22–28.CrossRef 53. Duckworth M, Turvey JR: An extracellular Staurosporine cell line agarase from a Cytophaga species. Biochem J 1969, 113:139–142.PubMed 54. Kuwabara S, Lloyd PH: Protein and carbohydrate moieties of a preparation of ß-lactamase II. Biochem J 1971, 124:215–220.PubMed 55. Nouwens AS, Beatson SA, Whitchurch CB, Walsh BJ, Schweizer HP, Mattick JS, Cordwell SJ: Proteome analysis of extracellular proteins regulated by the las and rhl quorum sensing systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Microbiology 2003,149(Pt 5):1311–1322.PubMedCrossRef 56. Folders J, Tommassen J, Van Loon LC, Bitter W: Identification of a chitin-binding protein secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa . J Bacteriol 2000,182(5):1257–1263.PubMedCrossRef 57. Vu TH, Werb Z: Matrix metalloproteinases: effectors of development and normal physiology. Genes Dev 2000,14(17):2123–2133.PubMedCrossRef 58. Kearns DB, Bonner PJ, Smith DR, Shimkets LJ: An extracellular matrix-associated zinc metalloprotease is required for dilauroyl phosphatidylethanolamine chemotactic excitation in Myxococcus xanthus. J Bacteriol 2002,184(6):1678–1684.PubMedCrossRef 59.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:1867–1871PubMedCrossRef 42 Prince R,

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“Introduction PERK inhibitor Estrogen deficiency

is regarded as a leading cause of bone loss and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Although hormone therapy (HT) in postmenopausal women has been found to be efficacious in mitigating bone loss and preventing bone fractures [1, 2], the results of the recent check details Women’s Health Initiative trial suggest that a combination of estrogen plus progestin taken for more than 5 years may increase the risk of invasive breast cancer and cardiovascular events, including coronary heart disease

and stroke [3]. A trial using an estrogen-only arm in hysterectomized women also demonstrated a higher risk of cerebrovascular events [4]. Phytoestrogens exhibit weak estrogenic activity, on the order of 10−2–10−3 that of 17 β-estradiol [5, 6]. The three major chemical types of phytoestrogens that have been identified are isoflavones, lignans, and coumestans. The primary isoflavones in aglycone form are genistein, daidzein, and glycitein. They are found in soybeans and have been considered by some, but not all, researchers as potential alternatives to HT [7]. When the study was first planned in mid-2003, many investigations evaluating the effects of isoflavone-containing soy protein or isolated isoflavones on bone health this website of peri-menopausal or postmenopausal women had already been published. Only a few of those studies were double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled

trials [8–12]. They were characterized by small sample size (≦175 cases), short-term selleck chemical duration (≦12 months), and low daily dose (≦99 mg aglycone equivalents). The parameters observed were bone mineral density (BMD) and/or bone turnover markers, and the results were inconsistent. In an attempt to better understand the effects of soy isoflavones on bone health, this study was designed to examine the effects of soy isoflavones on BMD of Taiwanese postmenopausal women with bone loss, employing a larger sample size, a higher dose of isoflavone, and a follow-up of longer duration. Methods Study design This study was designed as a 2-year, parallel group, placebo-controlled, double-blind, two-arm clinical trial conducted simultaneously at three medical centers in Taiwan: the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH), Changhua Christian Hospital (CCH), and National Cheng Kung University Hospital (NCKUH).

Trends Microbiol 2006,14(9):389–397 PubMedCrossRef 41 Patel CN,

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Camilli A, Bassler BL: Bacterial small-molecule signaling pathways. Science 2006,311(5764):1113–1116.PubMedCrossRef 43. DeLisa MP, Valdes JJ, Bentley WE: Mapping stress-induced changes in autoinducer AI-2 production in chemostat-cultivated Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol 2001,183(9):2918–2928.PubMedCrossRef 44. Yuan L, Hillman JD, Progulske-Fox A: Microarray analysis of quorum-sensing-regulated genes in SRT2104 cost Porphyromonas gingivalis . Infect Immun 2005,73(7):4146–4154.PubMedCrossRef 45. Senadheera D, Cvitkovitch DG: Quorum sensing and biofilm see more formation by Streptococcus mutans . Adv Exp Med Biol 2008, 631:178–188.PubMedCrossRef 46. Lönn-Stensrud J, Petersen FC, Benneche T, Scheie AA: Synthetic bromated furanone inhibits autoinducer-2-mediated communication and biofilm formation in oral streptococci. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2007,22(5):340–346.PubMedCrossRef

47. Russell MW, Harrington DJ, Russell RR: Identity of Streptococcus mutans surface protein antigen III and wall-associated protein antigen A. Infect Immun 1995,63(2):733–735.PubMed 48. Levesque CM, Voronejskaia E, Huang YC, Mair RW, Ellen RP, Cvitkovitch DG: Involvement of sortase anchoring of cell wall Blasticidin S concentration proteins in biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans . Infect Immun 2005,73(6):3773–3777.PubMedCrossRef 49. Qian H, Dao acetylcholine ML: Inactivation of the Streptococcus mutans wall-associated protein A gene ( wapA ) results in a decrease in sucrose-dependent adherence and aggregation. Infect Immun 1993,61(12):5021–5028.PubMed 50. Zhu L, Kreth J, Cross SE, Gimzewski JK, Shi W, Qi F: Functional characterization of cell-wall-associated protein WapA in Streptococcus mutans. Microbiology 2006,152(Pt 8):2395–2404.PubMedCrossRef 51. Hasona A, Crowley PJ, Levesque CM, Mair RW, Cvitkovitch DG, Bleiweis AS, Brady LJ: Streptococcal viability and diminished stress tolerance in mutants lacking the signal

recognition particle pathway or YidC2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005,102(48):17466–17471.PubMedCrossRef 52. Keenan RJ, Freymann DM, Stroud RM, Walter P: The signal recognition particle. Annu Rev Biochem 2001, 70:755–775.PubMedCrossRef 53. Herskovits AA, Bochkareva ES, Bibi E: New prospects in studying the bacterial signal recognition particle pathway. Mol Microbiol 2000,38(5):927–939.PubMedCrossRef 54. Simionato MR, Tucker CM, Kuboniwa M, Lamont G, Demuth DR, Tribble GD, Lamont RJ: Porphyromonas gingivalis genes involved in community development with Streptococcus gordonii . Infect Immun 2006,74(11):6419–6428.PubMedCrossRef 55. Bustin SA: Absolute quantification of mRNA using realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. J Mol Endocrinol 2000,25(2):169–193.

J Pain Palliative Care Pharmacother 2011; 25: 340–9 CrossRef”

J Pain Palliative Care Pharmacother 2011; 25: 340–9.CrossRef”
“Introduction L-asparaginase (ASNase) is an important oncotherapy, particularly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia LGX818 nmr (ALL). Tucidinostat cell line ASNase is thought to exert its anti-tumor activity by hydrolyzing asparagine to aspartate and ammonia. Asparagine synthetase activity

in some malignant lymphoblasts is very low, and the lymphoblasts rely on an exogenous supply of amino acids. Lymphoblasts thereby deplete the supply of asparagine, which leads to cell death.[1–3] An advantage of ASNase is that it does not have cross-resistance with other anti-tumor agents. Another important advantage is that it has low toxicity in normal tissues and VS-4718 in other neoplastic cells that express high levels of asparagine synthetase. Potential side effects of ASNase include hypersensitivity reactions, central nervous system dysfunction, coagulation abnormalities, liver dysfunction, hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, and pancreatitis.[4] In some cases,

ASNase-induced pancreatitis can be life threatening and all chemotherapy must be discontinued. Although patients can recover from this kind of acute pancreatitis, re-initiation of therapy with ASNase in such cases is generally considered contraindicated. There are various treatments for ASNase-induced pancreatitis: some reports have suggested mafosfamide use of octreotide[5–7] or a continuous regional arterial infusion of a protease inhibitor

and antibiotics.[8] Although pancreatitis remains one of the most severe complications of ASNase therapy, it is impossible to predict who will develop pancreatic toxicity from ASNase.[9] Furthermore, there is no adequate prophylaxis for this potentially life-threatening condition. In the present study, the pharmacologic effects of ASNase on plasma amino acid levels and serum rapid turnover protein (RTP) levels were investigated as factors potentially related to ASNase-induced pancreatic injury. The presence of pancreatitis or pancreatic injury during administration of ASNase was evaluated through measurement of the levels of serum pancreatic enzymes and pancreatic protease inhibitors. Methods Subjects The study group consisted of 29 children aged 1 year to 13.25 years (median age 4 years; male : female ratio 19 : 10) who were newly diagnosed with ALL and received chemotherapy for ALL (B-cell phenotype : T-cell phenotype ratio 25 : 4). Patients were classified as standard risk (SR) if they met the following criteria: age 1–9.99 years and white blood cell count <50 000/μL. All others were designated as high risk (HR) [SR : HR ratio 18 : 11]. Induction therapy was initiated according to the Tokyo Children’s Cancer Study Group L04-16 protocol and consisted of prednisolone 60 mg/m2/day (on days 1–35, tapering off on days 36–42); vincristine 1.

As such strains could potentially be defeated by using bacterioci

As such strains could potentially be defeated by using bacteriocins we need more knowledge about bacteriocin resistance phenomena in enterococci. In this work we have performed transcriptional analyses by genomic microarray to study the effects on class IIa bacteriocin resistance in E. faecalis V583, a vancomycin-resistant clinical isolate [19, 20]. Our data confirm the important role of the mannose PTS in bacteriocin sensitivity and provide new insight into its role in global gene regulation in this organism. Methods Bacterial strains and growth conditions Belinostat purchase Enterococci were routinely grown at 37°C in M17

(Oxoid) supplemented with 0.5% glucose (GM17) or brain heart infusion (BHI) (Bacto™ BHI, Difco Laboratories, Becton, Dickinson and Company). Growth was monitored using a Bioscreen C instrument (Oy Growth Curves Ab Ltd.), at 37°C. Bacteriocin assay CHIR98014 concentration pediocin PA-1 was obtained from Pediococcus acidilactici Pac 1.0 [21] grown for 24 hours in MRS (Oxoid) at 30°C. The culture supernatant was heated to 70°C for 15 min, and applied to a column of SP-sepharose (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech). The column was washed with sodium AZD2014 order phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 5) before the concentrated bacteriocin was eluted with 1 M NaCl. Bacteriocin activity was measured with

a 96-well microtiter-plate assay [22]. Stationary phase cultures diluted 100 times in MRS were used as indicators. The plates were incubated for 16 hours at 37°C, and growth was measured spectrophotometrically at 620 nm. One bacteriocin unit (BU) was defined as the amount of bacteriocin that inhibited growth of the indicator strain E. Pyruvate dehydrogenase faecalis V583 by 50% under these conditions. Isolation of resistant mutants Aliquots from a culture of E. faecalis V583 grown in GM17 to an optical density at 600 nm of 1.0 were spread onto GM17 agar plates containing 10 BU/ml pediocin PA-1. After incubation

overnight at 37°C, the spontaneously pediocin PA-1 resistant mutant MOP1 was picked. Mutant MOP5 was obtained by inoculating MOP1 in lactic broth [23] supplemented with 800 BU/ml pediocin PA-1. After growth over night the mutant was colony purified on GM17 agar. Mutant MOP2 was resistant to 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), 2-DG is known to enter the bacteria via mannose PTS [24]. One μl of an E. faecalis culture grown overnight at 37°C in M17 broth supplemented with 0.2% fructose was spread onto M17 agar (Oxoid) plates containing 10 mM 2-DG (Sigma) and 0.2% fructose. After incubation for 24 hours, the mutant was isolated. To construct a strain with an inactivated mpt, a 355 basepair fragment of gene mptD was PCR amplified using primers mptDi-F and mptDi-R and the template was DNA from V583 (Table 1).

Blank titrations of Emodin into buffer were also performed

Blank titrations of buy BAY 63-2521 Emodin into buffer were also performed

to correct for the heats generated by dilution and mixing. The binding isotherm was fit by the single binding site model using a non-linear least squares method based on Origin (Microcal Adavosertib in vivo Software, Northampton, MA, USA). HpFabZ-Emodin complex crystallization and data collection HpFabZ crystallization was performed using hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method similar to our reported approach [8]. 1 μl of HpFabZ (~10 mg/ml) in crystallization buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 500 mM NaCl) was mixed with an equal volume of reservoir solution containing 2 M sodium formate, 0.1 M sodium acetate trihydrate at pH 3.6–5.6 and 2% w/v benzamidine-HCl. The mixture was equilibrated against 500 μl of the reservoir solution at 277K. When the dimensions of HpFabZ crystals grew up to 0.5 × 0.3 × 0.3 mm3 after 7 days, Emodin was added into the original drops to a final concentration of ~10 mM and soaked for 24 hours. The crystal was then picked up with

a nylon loop and flash-cooled in liquid nitrogen. Data collection was performed at 100K using the original reservoir solution as cryoprotectant on an in-house R-Axis IV++ image-plate detector equipped with a Rigaku rotating-anode generator operated at 100 kV and 100 mA (λ = 1.5418 Å). Diffraction images were recorded by a Rigaku R-AXIS IV++ imaging-plate detector with an oscillation step of 1°. The data sets were integrated with MOSFLM [24] and scaled with

programs of the CCP4 suite [25]. Analysis of the diffraction data indicated that the crystal belongs to space group see more P212121. Structure determination and refinement HpFabZ-Emodin complex structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) with the programs in CCP4 using the coordinate of native HpFabZ (PDB code is 2GLL) as the search model. Structure Staurosporine ic50 refinement was carried out using CNS standard protocols (energy minimization, water picking and B-factor refinement) [26]. Electron density interpretation and model building were performed by using the computer graphics program Coot [27]. The stereochemical quality of the structure models during the course of refinement and model building was evaluated with the program PROCHECK [28]. The coordinates and structure factor of the HpFabZ-Emodin complex structure have been deposited in the RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB code is 3ED0). Anti-H. pylori activity assay The bacterial growth inhibition activity for Emodin was evaluated by using Paper Discus Method. DMSO and ampicillin paper were used as negative and positive control respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values were determined by the standard agar dilution method using Columbia agar supplemented with 10% sheep blood containing two-fold serial dilutions of Emodin. The plates were inoculated with a bacterial suspension (108 cfu/ml) in Brain Heart Infusion broth with a multipoint inoculator. Compound-free Columbia agar media were used as controls.

1 This study subA_out subA 2-2 5′-GAA TCA ACA ACA

1 This study subA_out subA 2-2 5′-GAA TCA ACA ACA check details GAT ACG AC-3′ AEZO02000020.1 This study subA-L Linkera 5′-ATG AAT GAG AGC ATC CCT-3′ AEZO02000020.1 This study subAB5′OEP subAB 2-2 5′-TAA TGT TTT TGA GAC GGG-3′ AEZO02000020.1 This study subAB2-3′out

subAB 2-2 5′-AGG TCG GCT CAG TGT TC-3′ AEZO02000020.1 This study aintergenic linker between the OEP-locus and subA 2-2. PCR-screening, sequencing and sequence analysis Characterization, and sequencing of subAB alleles as well as the presence of saa or tia genes were determined by amplification with the oligonucleotides shown in Table 2. DNA sequence analysis of subAB open reading frames was carried out by capillary sequencing using a CEQ™ 8000 Genetic Analysis System (Beckman Coulter, Germany) and the CEQ

Dye Terminator cycle sequencing VX-689 solubility dmso (DTCS) quick start kit (Beckman Coulter, Germany) NVP-AUY922 cell line according to the manufacturer’s recommendation. Final DNA sequences were obtained by sequencing both complementary strands with an at least two-fold coverage. Oligonucleotides for sequencing were created using the Oligo-Explorer ver. 1.1.2 software (http://​www.​genelink.​com) using nucleotide sequences of E. coli strains 98NK2 (Acc. no. AY258503), ED32 (Acc. no. JQ994271), and 1.02264 (Acc. no. AEZO02000020.1) from the NCBI database. The same sequences were used as reference sequences for phylogenetic analyses and sequence comparison. The obtained sequences for all subAB alleles were submitted to the EBI database and achieved consecutive accession no. from #HG324027 – #HG324047. Editing of raw data and sequence-alignments were carried out using Bioedit, version [27]. Phylogenetic analysis of the different subA genes was conducted using Mega 5.1 with an UPGMA algorithm [28]. Results Genomic localization of subAB genes In order to characterize the subAB genes of 18 food-borne STEC from a previous study, which were positive by PCR targeting a fragment

of the PAK6 subAB operon [19], they were initially analyzed for the presence and genetic location of their complete ORF. By purification and gel electrophoresis of plasmid DNA of all 18 STEC strains, it could be demonstrated that all strains carried plasmids of various sizes (data not shown). Sixteen strains carried large plasmids with molecular weights larger than that of plasmid pO157 of E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 (representative plasmid preparations are shown in Figure 1A). Southern blot hybridization with a specific DNA probe directed to subAB 1 , showed that 9 strains carried subAB 1 on a large plasmid (Figure 1A). None of the other strains reacted with the probe (data not shown).