, 1991; Isaacson, 1998), and anti-inflammatory (Sharma et al , 20

, 1991; Isaacson, 1998), and anti-inflammatory (Sharma et al., 2005) activities. Modification of basic structural fragments of drugs, by altering molecular conformation, introducing additional

substituents into aromatic or heterocyclic rings can Tipifarnib manufacturer affect drug-receptor interactions, as well as drug body distribution and metabolism (Patrick, 2005). In our previous papers, we reported a novel method of synthesizing quinoline fragment-containing phenothiazine derivatives that possess the structure of 5-alkyl-12(H)-quino[3,4-b][1,4] benzothiazinium salts 2. These compounds contain a totally planar tetracyclic fragment and have interesting antimicrobial and antiproliferative properties (Zięba et al.,2010, 2012). In this study, we present details of synthesis of novel quinobenzothiazine

derivatives as free quinoline bases, and their derivatives containing aminoalkyl substituents at the thiazine nitrogen atom. We also demonstrate their antiproliferative activity. Results and discussion Chemistry 5-Alkyl-12(H)-quino[3,4-b][1,4]benzothiazinium salts 2 were obtained by cyclization of 1-alkyl-4-(arylamino)quinolinium-3-thiolates 1 in the presence of HCl donor (aniline learn more hydrochloride) and atmospheric oxygen (Scheme 1) (Zięba et al., 2000; Zięba and Suwińska, 2006). 3-Thiolates 1 were obtained by reacting thioquinanthrenediinium salts with aromatic amines (Maślankiewicz and Zięba, 1992). Scheme. 1 Synthesis of compounds 2 Phenothiazine derivatives with aminoalkyl substituents at the thiazine nitrogen atom constitute an important group of neuroleptic drugs (Isaacson, 1998), they also possess other interesting biological properties, such as antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity. Compounds having such structure are obtained by alkylating phenothiazine derivatives in an alkaline environment. Quinoselleck compound benzothiazine derivatives with such substituents at the thiazine nitrogen atom cannot be obtained directly from Orotic acid salts 2 using this method, like 3-azaphenothiazine salts (Clarke et al., 1961), they do not form sodium salts in the presence of bases. Instead, they split off hydrogen

chloride and form respective 5-alkyl-5(H)-quino[3,4-b][1,4]benzothiazine 3 derivatives (Scheme 2) (Zięba et al., 2000; Zięba and Suwińska, 2006). Scheme. 2 Reaction of salts 2 with bases We attempted, therefore, to perform N-dealkylation of salts 2 to obtain quinobenzothiazine derivatives 4 as free quinoline bases. There are no data available concerning N-dealkylation of azaphenothiazine salts. In an earlier publication, we described N-dealkylation of 1-alkylquinolinium salts achieved by heating their pyridine or DMF solutions (Maślankiewicz and Zięba, 1994). However, under such conditions salts 2 do not undergo the N-dealkylation reaction. On the other hand, by carrying the reaction of 5-alkyl-12(H)-quino[3,4-b][1,4]benzothiazinium salts 2 with benzimidazole at 200 °C, the expected 12(H)-quino[3,4-b][1,4]benzothiazines 4 were obtained (Scheme 3) with good yield.

Many of these barriers exist at the federal and state levels, and

Many of these barriers exist at the federal and state levels, and stem from lack of an overall national plan for the development of algaculture, from the overlapping jurisdictions of other federal agencies over different aspects of algae cultivation, (Fig. 3), and from the diverse end products generated by algae. Fig. 3 Federal

agency jurisdiction over algae versus terrestrial crops. Four different federal departments hold jurisdiction over various aspects of algae cultivation, research, and products. EERE energy efficiency & renewable RO4929097 order energy, NIFA National Institute of Food & Agriculture, ARS Agricultural Research Service, APHIS Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service, TSCA toxic substance control act Agencies that currently hold some responsibility over algae are the DOE, USDA, DOD, and EPA. The DOE has been involved in algae biofuel research since the onset of the 25-year long ASP in 1980 and has done extensive research on both algal biology and large-scale cultivation under its Biomass Program (Sheehan et al. 1998). Findings have been reported in both the ASP close-out report and the National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap (U.S. DOE 2010). The DOE also C188-9 appropriates funding for grants and loans to industry and academic partners

doing algae biofuel R&D. The DOD appropriates R&D grants and participates in demonstrations for algal biofuel use. It has currently entered contracts for developing commercial-scale production. While the USDA is responsible for regulatory oversight and approval, biotechnology and environmental regulation of genetically modified crops, the EPA has asserted jurisdiction for the permitting of genetically engineered algae varieties under its Toxic Substance Control Act, further supporting the notion of uncoordinated and overlapping federal support and regulation of the algae industry.

There are also statutory limitations for the USDA’s support of algae. Existing law, although not defined well and left open to individual Adenosine programs for interpretation, may have the ability to support algae when used to produce a feed or food; the same standard, however, is not applied to algae if the end product is used to produce energy. None of these inconsistencies exist for the program crops (e.g., corn); they qualify for the vast array of USDA assistance no matter what products they support. The USDA asserts Semaxanib responsibilities for agricultural policies pertaining to algae, but the end-use of algae as an energy source has created uncertainty in the applicability of these policies to algae cultivation. While a clear case can be made for expanding these programs for algal biomass used for food and nutraceutical purposes, there are still holes in the existing framework to accommodate algal biomass grown for bioenergy purposes.

(D, E, F): Early germinating conidia were observed in the inflamm

(D, E, F): Early germinating conidia were observed in the inflammatory infiltrates either free or in the cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages (arrowheads). Note that the conidia and hyphae were less mature than under cortisone acetate treatment (Figure.

6). A, C: HE staining; B, D, E, F: GMS staining. The late stage (three days post infection) of IA induced by transient neutrophil depletion (Figure 11) was characterised by a FDA approval PARP inhibitor multifocal inflammatory lesion, centered on bronchi and bronchioles but extending to alveoli and blood vessels as well (Figure 11A). The lesions were extensive, with large areas of necrosis and vascular involvement that was more pronounced than in cortisone acetate-treated mice (Table 1). Mature septated fungal hyphae STI571 in vivo were observed infiltrating bronchiolar and alveolar spaces as well as interstitial tissue (Figure 11B, D). Hyphae were more numerous than in cortisone acetate-treated mice and infiltrated the pulmonary parenchyma more readily (Figure 11A, B). The inflammatory infiltrate was predominately composed of mononuclear cells (monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes and plasma cells) (Figure 10C). Individual lesions measured up to 500 μm2 in area and accounted 18.9 ± 2.8% of the

total lung section surface (Table 1), which is even higher than the area affected under cortisone acetate treatment. Figure 11 In the late stage after RB6-8C5 treatment, macrophages and recruited monocytes were unable to prevent fungal lung colonisation. (A): Multifocal large inflammatory infiltrates centred on bronchioles but GSI-IX mouse Urease extending to alveoli and blood vessels (arrowheads). (B): Fungi displayed a high infiltrative potential with a marked extension to alveoli (arrowheads). (C): Inflammatory infiltrates were composed of mononucleated cells; mainly macrophages (inlay). (D): Hyphae were mature and displayed a high invasive potential. A, C: HE staining; B, D: GMS staining.

Taken together, these data indicate that the recruitment of mononuclear cells, in the absence of neutrophils, is insufficient to prevent conidial germination, hyphal outgrowth and tissue infiltration. It is likely that the severe vascular and parenchymal lesions observed in RB6-8C5-treated mice prevented the development of high bioluminescent signals in vivo. This is most likely due to hypoxia resulting from the pulmonary parenchyma destruction, which was even more severe than under cortisone acetate treatment. Cyclophosphamide treatment Treatment with cyclophosphamide was expected to cause severe neutropenia accompanied by a reduction of monocytes. However, resident alveolar macrophages were not expected to be affected by this treatment. Bioluminescence imaging revealed that cyclophosphamide treatment resulted in a delayed (apparent at day 2 to day 3 post-infection), but steadily increasing bioluminescence signal until mice succumbed to progressive disease (Figure 1C and Figure 2 inlet).

8 female patients of age from 27 to 67 years (P1 = 59, P2 = 40, P

8 female patients of age from 27 to 67 years (P1 = 59, P2 = 40, P3 = 27, P4 = 47, P5 = 31, P6 = 35, P7 = 32, P8 = 67) underwent thorough clinical examination including cystoscopy and fulfilled the criteria of European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC) [20]. All patients had an established diagnosis of IC for more than four years. Midstream

urine (30 ml) was collected by the clean catch method with labial separation supervised by an urotherapy nurse. Specimens were kept at 4°C, and within an hour processed for DNA isolation. All specimens used were culture-negative, as tested by the Urological Clinic at the University Hospital HF Aker-Oslo. None of the patients was receiving antibiotics at the time samples were EGFR inhibitor taken, nor prior to that according to hospital MLN2238 price records. Sample processing and DNA isolation Sample processing and DNA extraction was performed as previously described in Siddiqui et al. (2011) [16]. Briefly, urine aliquots (30 ml) were pelleted by centrifugation and total DNA was isolated from sediments using DNeasy

Blood & Tissue kit (QIAGEN, Germany), preceded by incubation with POWERlyse (lysis buffer) (NorDiag ASA, Oslo, Norway). Finally, the DNA was eluted in 100 μl of AE buffer from the kit. The DNA concentrations in the samples (P1-P8) were measured by Quant-iT PicoGreeen dsDNA assay kit (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen USA) and ranged from 0.22 ng/μl to 4.36 ng/μl. 16S rDNA PCR and 454-pyrosequencing For each IC urine sample, we amplified 16S rDNA sequences using two different primer sets specific for the V1V2 and V6 hypervariable regions followed by 454 pyrosequencing as described in Siddiqui et al. (2011) [16]. Each of the primers consisted of a target specific region at their 3’ end (V1V2 or V6) and an adapter sequence (Primer A or Primer B) at their 5’ end as needed for GS FLX amplicon sequencing (454 Life Sciences, USA). Equal amounts of the two different amplicons (both V1V2- and V6-region) for a single subject were pooled and sequenced

using GS-FLX chemistry in the same lane of a Pico-Titer plate PLEK2 divided into 16 lanes, except for samples P1, P2 and, P3, for which each amplicon (V1V2 and V6) was sequenced in a separate lane. 454 pyrosequencing was performed by the Norwegian Sequencing Centre (NSC) at the Department of Biology, University of Oslo, Norway. Sequence read preprocessing Sequence read preprocessing was done as described in Siddiqui et al. (2011) [16]. In brief, a total of 187,901 reads were produced from IC female urine samples. The initial sequence reads were split into two pools using the V1V2 and V6 primer sequences via the mTOR activity sfffile program from 454 Life Sciences (Roche), thus reducing the sequences to 172,931 IC urine reads (Table 1) due to the program splitting on an exact primer match.

This long diffusion length of the adatoms along the sidewall coul

This long diffusion length of the adatoms along the sidewall could be associated to the much slower radial growth rate in comparison with the axial growth rate. Distribution of the overall deposition volume Epigenetics inhibitor between the radial and axial growth is also shown in inset of Figure 3. It shows that more volume is deposited onto the sidewall with increase of growth time. This is mainly due to the significant increase of the length with increase of growth time; hence, more adatoms could not diffuse up to the tip of NW and contribute to the radial growth. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) has provided direct experimental evidence of the crystallinity of the InAs nanowires grown on HOPG substrates. The InAs nanowires, with

an average diameter of approximately 100 nm, were surrounded by an amorphous layer of a few nanometers thick (see Figure 4a). This GDC-0973 concentration amorphous layer is associated with the chemiabsorption PI3K inhibition of oxygen on the InAs nanowire due to exposure to air [31]. The oxidation of the structure begins with a thin amorphous layer that is observed to form a crystalline phase over time under the electron beam. The NWs grown under these conditions showed a polytype-like structure with mixed wurtzite (WZ) and zinc blende (ZB) character,

with multiple stacking faults on (111)/(0001) planes. This polytypism can be easily revealed at higher magnification (Figure 4b). The electron diffraction pattern recorded in similar areas (Figure 4c) shows streaks, indicating the polytype nature of these NWs. The area inside the white rectangle in Figure 4b has been enlarged to highlight the

change in the stacking (Figure 4d). The HRTEM inset shows a transition between WZ (BABA) to twinned ZB area (ABCBA). The resulting mixture of crystal structures is similar to previously reported InGaAs MG-132 chemical structure NWs grown by MOCVD [2–5]. The ZB phase is normally the most stable crystal structure in bulk III-V semiconductors due to the slightly lower free energy for ZB than that of WZ. However, the crystal structure of materials in nanometer scale is more efficient in reducing the surface energy caused by the large surface-to-volume ratio [32–36]. Theoretical description of the self-catalysed GaAs NWs indicates that WZ phase is thermodynamically favoured for low supersaturation of Ga droplets with As (i.e. low atomic fraction in the Ga droplets), but increase in supersaturation or the shrinkage of the liquid droplets can lead to other phases [37, 38]. Thus, III-V NWs with ZB phase are often mixed with WZ phase and related stacking defects such as twin defects, stacking faults and ZB-WZ polytypism. Figure 4 Images of InAs NW on graphite. TEM images of an InAs NW on graphite (a); the HRTEM image showing the crystal structure (b); the electron diffraction pattern (c) and the enlarged image of the highlighted white rectangular area showing the changes in the stacking (d).

Each matrix shows the appearance of possible combinations (see al

Each matrix shows the appearance of possible combinations (see also Table 2), plus the ternary mix R/F/ E. coli on NAG below. Tetrahedral schemes show dominance/submissivity relation for each combination; arrows widen towards the more dominant partner. a On NAG, F, R, and E. coli play the rock-paper-scissors game, and the same holds for the combination M, R, and E. coli. Two remaining triangles show absolute dominance of F or R in particular settings b On MMA, E. coli and M dominate the field, whereas F is the absolute loser towards all partners. Smiley – no growth of F colonies. c Interactions of chimeras with colonies on NAG. (simultaneous planting to a distance of 5 mm, chimeras to

the left, day 7). d Growth of suspension mixes in NBG – proportions of particular morphotype. Figure 7 Induction of growth of F colonies on minimal

medium (MMA) by maculae: a R macula; b M macula; c E. coli macula. learn more (Day 7) Middle row: macroscopic appearance, top and bottom row – magnified details (see inserts the macroscopic structure). Note the smooth, non-interactive edges without scouts. d Helper colony of E. coli (arrow) in center of dense sowing of F. (Day 7). Bars: 1 cm in all macro-, 100 μm in all micro-photographs. Unexpectedly, RG-7388 in vivo however, the F morphotype is also able to grow on MMA when a “helper” in the form of a non-F body grows nearby (Figure 7): in such a case, it gives rise to small, MK5108 price smooth, white colonies that do not produce scouts or X structures. The adjacent edges of non-F macula and F colony, whether growing or not, appear sharp, and dispatch no scouts (Figure 7; compare below to Figures 5, 8-10). There is also a difference in colony yield: An inoculum giving 50–100 colonies/cm2 on the NAG substrate, will Endonuclease give rise, on MMA, to only 5–10 colonies/cm2, and only at a distance of about 2 cm from the helper colony (Figure

7d). Figure 8 Interaction of homospecific neighbor colonies. a R colonies; b F colonies at two different distances; photos of adult colonies (Day 10). In micro-photographs (i-iv) only adjacent faces are shown; the distal faces of the colony are similar to fully developed controls shown in Figure 1a, b. Figure 9 Mutual sensing of F and E. coli colonies. a At time 0, both partners were planted simultaneously at two different distances. Negative values: F planted to E. coli colonies one (−1) or two days old (−2). Positive value: E. coli planted to F colonies 2 and 6 days old (note the different magnification at lower left; arrow shows rudiment of E. coli). Day 10 after planting E. coli . Micro-photographs taken from areas indicated. b Interaction on MMA, planting distance 3 mm; dashed line delineates the contours of both colonies. (Day 7). Figure 10 Mutual sensing of R and E. coli colonies. a At time 0, both partners were planted simultaneously 5 or 15 mm apart. Negative value: R planted to E. coli colony one day old. Positive value: E. coli planted to R colony 1 and 2 days old. Day 10 after planting E.

2 μg/ml ATc before β-galactosidase activity was measured (arbitra

2 μg/ml ATc before β-galactosidase activity was measured (arbitrary units) as described [42]. The data correspond to the means of three independent experiments performed in duplicate, and the error bars represent standard deviations. Discussion We identified CacA, encoded on a plasmid clone, as a novel connector-like factor that activated the CpxR/CpxA system from screening a library of high-copy-number plasmids containing check details various Salmonella chromosomal DNA fragments. CacA appears to exclusively act on the CpxR/CpxA system because a similar induction was not observed in other TCS reporter strains with the same clone. This observation was not just

an artifact of CacA overexpression or from its expression driven by a heterologous AZD8931 promoter because deleting this gene revealed a moderate decrease in transcription of the cpxP and spy genes, which are directly regulated by the CpxR/CpxA system. Moreover, the activation

of the cacA gene promoter is, at least in part, dependent on RpoS, the stability of which is subject to RssB/ClpXP-mediated processability and the -10 GW3965 mw region sequence. Taken together, we hypothesize that CacA may integrate information about the regulatory status of RssB/RpoS into the CpxR/CpxA system (Figure 5). However, future investigations are necessary to fully elucidate the mechanism of CacA-mediated CpxR/CpxA activation. Figure 5 A model for the regulatory interactions between RssB/RpoS and the CpxR/CpxA system. RpoS accumulates during stationary phase and log phase, when the small anti-adopter protein IraP inhibits the RssB/ClpXP-mediated degradation of RpoS in low Mg2+ conditions [8]. RpoS induces expression of CacA, which stimulates the CpxR/CpxA system thus activating cpxP transcription. TrxA functionally associates with CacA-mediated Cpx induction. Several assessments of how the CacA mafosfamide protein activates CpxR-regulated genes were attempted. However, we did not detect a physical association between CacA and the CpxR/CpxA system. For example, no significant interaction was observed between the CacA

protein and the CpxR/CpxA system in our bacterial two-hybrid system analyses (data not shown), although we cannot completely dismiss that these proteins do not interact directly. Instead, thioredoxin 1 amino acid sequences were recovered by our pull-down assay. trxA inactivation impacted the activation of the CpxR/CpxA system by CacA, which possesses the conserved cysteine residues. This is in contrast to a report that demonstrated that a dsbD mutation activated the CpxR/CpxA system in Vibrio cholerae[32], where the DsbC-DsbD pathway promotes proper folding of substrate proteins with disulfide bond(s) at the periplasm using the cytoplasmic reducing ability of thioredoxin [33]. Moreover, the cysteine residues of NlpE are critical for activating the CpxR/CpxA system in E. coli[34], and a periplasmic LolA derivative with an artificial disulfide bond activates the CpxR/CpxA system [35].

In a study performed in

In a study performed in elderly women, strontium ranelate did not affect global primary and secondary haemostatic parameters [37]. In the present study, there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of VTE between

osteoporotic patients treated with strontium ranelate and the untreated osteoporotic cohort. These results are in accordance with a recent study using a self-controlled case series method in the GPRD that did not show a greater association of VTE with strontium ranelate selleckchem treatment [20]. In our study, we have included larger population with a longer follow-up, and thus, results are more informative and strengthened. Furthermore, the incidence of VTE with strontium ranelate is very similar to that for osteoporotic patients treated with alendronate sodium, a treatment for which a greater association with VTE has never been shown [38–40]. This study has some limitations since it

is a retrospective study cohort with no randomisation process to define the populations and with incomplete or unmeasured confounding factors find more such as severity of osteoporosis, immobilisation, prolonged travel, and family history of VTE. To take into account differences between treated and untreated groups, multiple adjustments on risk factors of VTE have been performed. However, even if the main risk factors have been taken into account, we cannot rule out residual confounding effect. In addition, as strontium ranelate is a new anti-osteoporotic treatment the population treated with strontium ranelate is smaller, and the mean follow-up duration is shorter when compared to alendronate IWR-1 order sodium cohort studied. For these reasons, a certain imbalance in analyses could not be excluded, and therefore, this study does not provide the same level of proof than double-blinded placebo controlled clinical

trials. However, we should HSP90 note that the population profile of this study is in conformity with what might be expected in terms of characteristics and observed increased risk for VTE with age. Furthermore, the fact that our study did not show an association between strontium ranelate treatment and increased risk for VTE, when compared with untreated patients, is reinforced by robustness analyses demonstrating no difference between current users and non-users. Finally, the rates of mortality were similar in the two treated cohorts (2.9% in the strontium ranelate cohort and 4.0% in the alendronate sodium cohort) avoiding any doubts regarding the potential under-reporting of VTE leading to death and therefore, removing the bias of not diagnosed VTE. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time that osteoporosis is associated with increased risk for VTE, probably related to the osteoporotic disease itself and its associated comorbidities.

2–5 7 Å from a centroid, authors have found the third point essen

2–5.7 Å from a centroid, authors have found the third point essential for a ligand–receptor interaction—the carbonyl oxygen, expected in the distance of 7.07 Å from the center of an aromatic ring and 4.3 Å from N4 piperazine atom. Intramolecular distances measured for a set of 5-HT1A receptor ligands by Chilmonczyk et al. were in the range of 7.93–12.37 Å check details (Centroid···O(1)), 3.95–7.16 Å (N(1)···O(1)), and 5.15–5.64 Å (Centroid···N(1)). The values calculated for new arylpiperazine derivatives (6, 7, 19, and 20) are in agreement with the presented three-point pharmacophore model (Table 2, Fig. 13). The distance between the center of the phenyl group and the imide oxygen (O1) is in the range of 8,13–11,89 Å.

The measured distance of the protonated nitrogen (N1) and O1 atom is in Epigenetics Compound Library mouse the range of 4.06–6.66 Å. The value of centroid –N1 length is in a narrow range between 5.67 and 5.71 Å. Presented results suggest that compounds 6, 7, 19,

and 20 could serve as potential 5-HT1A receptor ligands. They also prove that similar molecular values can be estimated for the derivative 4. Although it is an exception from “the rule of five,” because of its high molecular weight, volume and logP, and low solubility logS (Table 3), the compound 4 possess moderate activity to the 5-HT1A receptor. Table 2 Selected intramolecular distances (Å) for arylpiperazine derivatives 6, 7, 19, and 20   6 7 19 20 Centroid···O(1) 10.78 10.7 8.13 11.89 N(1)···O(1) 5.78 5.78 4.06 6.66 Centroid···N(1) 5.69 5.71 5.67 5.68 Fig. 13 Molecular geometric parameters (in Å) observed in solid state for the derivative 20 Table 3 Molecular descriptors calculated for

representative 5-HT1A Resminostat receptor ligands and for selected synthesized derivatives (drug likeness prediction done via http://​molsoft.​com/​mprop/​) Compound Molecular weight (u) Number of HBA Number of HBD logP logS [log(moles/l] PSA (Å2) Volume (Å3) Buspirone 385.25 5 0 2.09 −1.89 56.28 421.63 BMY-7378 385.24 4 0 3.14 −3.12 46.42 428.35 NAN-190 393.21 4 0 3.08 −4.16 44.93 415.76 4 725.33 5 0 6.82 −10.82 58.07 758.15 6 729.28 4 0 7.91 −11.22 49.46 769.80 7 713.31 4 0 7.33 −11.12 49.96 758.17 19 651.23 4 0 7.74 −10.79 49.75 646.73 20 443.22 4 0 4.25 −5.74 44.30 466.09 Structural data obtained for a set of long-chain arylpiperazine derivatives can serve for further investigations concerning ligands activity to metabotropic 5-HT receptors. Acknowledgments Authors are grateful to Professor Paolo La Colla (Universita di Cagliari, Monserrato, Italy) for performing cytotoxicity and HIV-1 activity screenings, and Professor Andrzej Bojarski (Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Science, Kraków, Poland) for 5-HT1A affinity investigation. MLN4924 purchase Conflict of interest None.

Microbiology 1998, 144:1033–1044 PubMedCrossRef 19 Akins DR,

Microbiology 1998, 144:1033–1044.PubMedCrossRef 19. Akins DR,

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Slusser JG, Zückert WR: Development of a single-plasmid-based regulatable gene expression system for Borrelia burgdorferi . Appl Environ Microbiol 2009, 75:6553–6558.PubMedCrossRef 23. Yarbrough D, Wachter RM, Kallio K, Matz MV, Remington SJ: Refined crystal structure of DsRed, a red fluorescent protein from coral, at 2.0-Å resolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001, 98:462–467.PubMedCrossRef 24. Eggers CH, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD: Sigma factor selectivity in Borrelia burgdorferi : RpoS recognition of the ospE Belnacasan price / ospF / elp promoters is dependent on the sequence of the -10 region. Mol Microbiol 2006, 59:1859–1875.PubMedCrossRef 25. Srivastava SY, de Silva AM: Reciprocal expression of ospA and ospC in single cells of Borrelia burgdorferi . J Bacteriol 2008, 190:3429–3433.PubMedCrossRef 26. Cox DL, Radolf JD: Insertion of fluorescent fatty acid probes into the outer membranes of the pathogenic spirochaetes Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi . Microbiology 2001, 147:1161–1169.PubMed 27. Valdivia RH, Falkow S: Fluorescence-based isolation of bacterial genes expressed

within host cells. Science 1997, 277:2007–2011.PubMedCrossRef 28. Rediers H, Rainey PB, Vanderleyden J, De Mot R: Unraveling the either secret lives of bacteria: use of in vivo expression technology and differential fluorescence induction promoter traps as tools for exploring niche-specific gene expression. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2005, 69:217–261.PubMedCrossRef 29. Carroll JA, Stewart PE, Rosa P, Elias AF, Garon CF: An enhanced GFP reporter system to monitor gene expression in Borrelia burgdorferi . Microbiology 2003, 149:1819–1828.PubMedCrossRef 30. Campbell RE, Tour O, Palmer AE, Steinbach PA, Baird GS, Zacharias DA, Tsien RY: A monomeric red fluorescent protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002, 99:7877–7882.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions OSK carried out the majority of the experimental work, analyzed the data and participated in drafting the manuscript.