Later, the IFFT (Inverse Fast Fourier Transform) is applied in th

Later, the IFFT (Inverse Fast Fourier Transform) is applied in the x direction only, as well as the FFT. Separating Tofacitinib Citrate the phase part of the result from the rest we obtain:��z(x,y)=��(x,y)+��0(x,y)=Imlog(g^(x,y)g^0?(x,y))(9)It is observed that the phase map can be obtained by applying Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the same process for each horizontal line. The values of the phase map are wrapped at some specific values. Those phase values range between �� and ?��.To recover the true phase it is necessary to restore the measured wrapped phase by an unknown multiple of 2��f0 [16]. The phase unwrapping process is not a trivial problem due to the presence of phase singularities (points in 2D, and lines in 3D) generated by local or global undersampling.

The correct 2D branch cut lines and 3D Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries branch cut surfaces should be placed where the gradient Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of the original phase distribution exceeded �� rad value. However, this important information is lost due to undersampling and cannot be recovered from the
Process tomography allows boundaries between heterogeneous compounds and homogeneous objects in a process to be imaged using a non-intrusive sensor. The basic idea of process tomography is to install a number of sensors around the pipe or vessel to be imaged. The sensor output signal depends on the position of the component boundaries within their sensing zones. The output signals are conditioned and sent as input to a computer, which is used to reconstruct a tomography image of the cross section being observed by the sensor.

These tomography images Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries have the potential of providing information on concentration distributions in the pipeline, information on flow regimes, velocity profiles, component volume flow rates and particle size measurements. Process tomography has a very good application foreground in industries [1].An image reconstruction in Electrical Charge Tomography (EChT) is typically an ill-posed problem. The small changes in the data cause arbitrarily large change in the solution, and this is reflected in ill conditioning of matrix sensitivity of the discrete model. The Tikhonov regularization method is an effective method to solve ill-posed inverse problems [2]. The Thikonov method has been applied to electrical capacitance tomography for image reconstruction by Peng et al. and Lionheart [3�C5]. This regularization Brefeldin_A of the problem is required to filter out the influence of the noise.

A common feature of this regularization method is that it depends on some regularization parameters that control how much filtering is introduced by regularization without losing too much newsletter subscribe information in the computed solution. The purpose of regularization optimization is to provide an efficient and numerically stable method that will provide a good approximation to the desired unknown solution.The theory of ill-posed problems is well developed in many papers [6�C8].

The fabricated fiber had a loss of 0 9 dB/m at 532 nm Figure 2 Sc

The fabricated fiber had a loss of 0.9 dB/m at 532 nm.Figure 2.Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image of the soft glass MOF used for these experiments. The central, structured region of the fiber was made from F2HT glass, view more and the cladding from F2 glass.4.?System CharacterizationInitial characterization was performed on the MOF using two diffe
The sun sensor is one of the most important devices for satellites. The early sun sensors were mainly sun appearance sensors and analog sun sensors [1]. With the development of space technology in recent years, requirements for sun sensors has Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries been extended to a large field of view and high accuracy levels. The traditional design and implementation methods cannot meet these the requirements, so the single-axis digital sun sensor [2] appeared, with an accuracy of better than 0.

1��. Two of the same single-axis digital sun sensors mounted vertically Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries can constitute a conventional two-axis sun sensor. Such digital sun sensors are widely used currently.Array image sensors such as CCD or CMOS and so on have been widely applied in space science. The array image sensor-based sun sensor is currently a research focus [3]. This kind of equipment is of high accuracy, high anti-interference. The aperture of sun sensors can be divided into single-aperture [as shown in Figure 1(a)] and multi-aperture [as shown in Figure 1(b)]. Compared with the traditional linear array sun sensor, the accuracy of a single-aperture sun sensor is increased, however, since only one Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries spot is used Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in the system, image utilization rate is low, so it is difficult to further enhance its accuracy.

The Italian Galileo Avionica Company has developed a single-aperture sun sensor, named Smart Sun Sensor [4].Figure 1.(a) single-aperture sun sensor (b) multi-aperture sun sensor.Compared Anacetrapib with the single-aperture sun sensor, a multi-aperture sun sensor has the following three advantages:Accuracy: as the single-aperture sun sensor accuracy depends mainly on the positioning accuracy of the sun spot, and its pointing accuracy is only about 0.03�� ,but for the multi-aperture sun sensor the accuracy of the sun spot location centroid is proportional to the square root of the number of apertures. Assuming that the pointing accuracy of a single hole ��, and hole arrays of N �� N, then the final pointing accuracy is ��/N, This shows that multi-aperture can greatly improve the accuracy of the sun sensor.

Reliability: for the single-aperture sun sensor there is a very deadly excellent validation danger: lack of reliability! When the hole is blocked or partially blocked, the accuracy will be greatly affected or even cause the system to lose function. For the multi-aperture sun sensor, the distribution of the image sensor area is relatively large, so even when part of the holes are completely blocked, using a reasonable method, the system still be able to guarantee the normal operation.

A schematic diagram of the SPCE��CNTs/ZrO2/PB/Nf��GMP-AChE electr

A schematic diagram of the SPCE��CNTs/ZrO2/PB/Nf��GMP-AChE electrode is shown in Figure 1.Figure 1.The surface of SPCE��CNTs/ZrO2/PB/Nf��GMP-AChE electrode.2.4. The Principle of Inhibition Mechanism and GC Detection2.4.1. Sample PreparationTen grams of Chinese cabbage sample was homogenized in a mortar and extracted for 10 min with 20 mL of acetone. Then, the blend was placed in reference a closed vial and centrifuged for 5 min at 3,000 rpm. The extraction was repeated twice, and the combined extracts were evaporated by rotary evaporation to 1.0 mL. For sample analysis, blank samples were spiked with dimethoate standards at 1.0, 5.0, 10 ng?mL? This MethodOne of the products of hydrolysis of ATCh with AChE is thiocholine (TCh).

Optical spectroscopic imaging and the related multi/hyperspectral imaging are highly useful techniques for a wide and diverse range of applications, ranging from microscopic chemical/biological imaging to stand-off mapping of chemical distribution and long-range remote sensing [1�C3]. As far as the measurement approach is concerned, the trend has been to use passive multi-/hyperspectral imaging, which employs detectors coupled with wavelength filters/multiplexers to measure the emission or scattered radiation from targets in the natural environment. In some cases, broad-band non-laser light sources are used when illumination is needed.Lasers uniquely offer radiometric and spectroscopic accuracy and resolution, and multispectral imaging technology can be greatly expanded with the laser.

Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries There are applications in which the laser multispectral capability provides invaluable performance; some examples are in the field of LIDAR [4]. For the last few decades since late 1970s to early 1980s, the value of multispectral LIDAR Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries has been well demonstrated as numerous work developed multi-wavelength or tunable/frequency agile LIDARs for applications that range from chemical agent detection [5,6] to atmospheric sensing [4]. Interestingly, the use of multi-wavelength capability is not only for atmospheric gas spectroscopy [7�C12] but also for the ��-dependence effect of aerosol scattering [13�C17]. More recently, supercontinuum, broadband, or multi-lines LIDAR have also been developed [18�C20] for these similar applications.However, spectral imaging is a more general concept than spectroscopic chemical detection. There is a distinction in the concept.

Spectral imaging involves the use of spectral discrimination to segment or Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries classify different objects in an image even without a priori spectroscopic knowledge of the objects. In this sense, laser multi-spectral imaging can be viewed as the active counterpart of the passive technique GSK-3 but with laser radiometric Navitoclax 923564-51-6 accuracy and spectroscopic versatility. Passive spectral sensing must make some estimation on the ambient incident radiation on the target, or the thermal condition of the target vs. its ambience, and the background radiation.

Recent research however, is indicating a need to increase

Recent research however, is indicating a need to increase so the accuracy beyond that available Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries from traditional TDR. The most logical pathway then becomes a transition from TDR based measurements to network analyzer measurements of absolute permittivity that will remove the adverse effects that high surface area soils and conductivity impart onto the measurements of apparent permittivity in traditional TDR applications.This research examines an observed experimental error for the coaxial probe, from which the modern TDR probe originated, which is hypothesized to be due to fringe capacitance. The research provides an experimental and theoretical basis for the cause of the error and provides a technique Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries by which to correct the system to remove this source of error.

To test this theory, a Poisson model of a coaxial cell was formulated to calculate the effective theoretical extra length caused by the fringe capacitance which is then used to correct the experimental results such that experimental measurements utilizing differing coaxial cell diameters and probe lengths, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries upon correction with the Poisson model derived correction factor, all produce the same results thereby lending support and for an augmented measurement technique for measurement of absolute permittivity.Keywords: TDR, cotton moisture, moisture sensing, permittivity, microwave sensing, microwave moisture1.?IntroductionFrequency domain analysis of soils, cotton lint, biological cells and media is rapidly gaining appreciation due to the ability to provide a true Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries measurement of permittivity as opposed to an apparent permittivity that TDR analysis in the time domain provides.

One of the driving factors behind this new trend is due to the recognition that in saline and high clay content soils, that the conductive soils dielectric loss has a profound impact on the measured apparent permittivity which Dacomitinib causes large errors especially when temperature effects are taken into consideration.Recent Axitinib structure research [1], reports the use of frequency domain analysis for extending the use of TDR waveforms in conductive soils as an alternative solution to soils in which the standard TDR waveform return is lost due to excessive conductivity, which renders the traditional TDR technique unusable or highly inaccurate. In this report, they report the need for use of a correction equation to relate the measured scattering S11 parameters to the soil dielectric properties, was suggested by Clarkson [2]. Other researchers have also reporting success in the use of the Clarkson [2] correction Equations [3�C5]. Of note was a report by Hoekstra and Delaney [6], that warned of possible additional modes of propagation, i.e.

Therefore, the wavelength shift for an FBG that is bonded to a bi

Therefore, the wavelength shift for an FBG that is bonded to a bimetal selleck kinase inhibitor can be rewritten as:����B��B=K?������Tbimetal+KT��TFBG(7)In Equation (7), there are two temperature variations, namely, ��Tbimetal and ��TFBG due to the heat transfer loss between the FBG and the bimetallic sheet. Therefore, the value of ��Tbimetal is not the same as ��TFBG although the heat is generated from the same source. Also, from Equation (7), it is understood that the relationship between wavelength shift and temperature is linear.3.?Experimental SetupThe polyimide coating of the FBG is removed before the FBG is inscribed using a 244 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser exposure with a phase mask, using hydrogen-loaded fibers. The peak reflectivity values are typically 90% and the Bragg wavelength located around 1,550 nm at room temperature.
The physical grating lengths are set to 2 cm length for all samples. A bimetallic sheet measuring 150 mm (height) �� 32 mm (width) �� 8.4 mm (thickness) is used. The FBG is glued on the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries bimetallic sheet using UV cured Norland Optical Adhesive (number 61). The glue has a melting temperature of 125 Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries ��C. The bimetallic shee
The sense of touch is one of the fundamental Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries sensations that give humans the ability to learn about objects�� characteristics such as size, shape, surface texture, stiffness, and Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries temperature [1,2]. Tactile sensing is also essential for detecting physical contacts [3] and it can effectively assist humans in object grasping and manipulation by providing information about the contact configuration [4]. Due to different shapes of objects, different forces and pressure patterns are generated.
Therefore, the tactile information of the generated force patterns can be used to reproduce the knowledge of objects�� shapes, which are required for grasping GSK-3 and manipulation in dexterous robotic hands. Specifically, it is the information of local shapes such as surface curvature of the objects that best determines the orientation and configuration of the fingers and the required grip force for a steady and reliable grasping [5]. Moreover, local tactile shape information can be used to determine the finger motion that will reach feasible grasping locations [6].
In the field of robotics, the perception of the tactile sensory information required for dexterous manipulation has fallen behind the mechanical capability of the existing hands [7,8], hence one of the primary requirements of robotics is to acquire an integrated knowledge of how tactile information is encoded and transmitted at various stages of different interaction in order to design an effective robotic hand [8].The current study is motivated by the lack of tactile information perception in artificial hands and the effective role of objects�� local shape recognition in dexterous grasping and manipulation.

Endogenous control miRNAs are usually recommended by vendors Alt

Endogenous control miRNAs are usually recommended by vendors. Alternatively, one can identify endogenous controls appropriate for the current study using various stability criteria. Identification of miRNAs that are minimally perturbed and most stable across all samples in a study can thus serve as endogenous controls. It has been observed that miRNAs recommended as controls were altered significantly in certain pathological states [19]. miRNA control for tissues may not be appropriate for body fluids and vice versa in both normal and diseased states. Thus it is unlikely that a set of reference or housekeeping miRNAs with universal applicability will be identified. However, a series of guidelines regarding miRNA isolation, quantification, and normalization for different platforms can lead to meaningful comparison of findings from different studies.
We have observed that miRNA profiles in control samples have some variability [20]. The underlying assumption in every study involving patient populations Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries is that control individuals are healthy. Considering the fundamental role played by Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries miRNAs in cellular function, it is conceivable that any fluctuations, either epigenetically induced or other factors such as ethnicity, age, gender, and diurnal changes can influence miRNA expression levels. Thus it is important to try to increase the cohort sizes of both patients and control samples to obtain reproducible results. However, this goal may not be always possible due to difficulty in sample procurement and the cost associated with these types of studies.
It is also becoming increasingly evident that some miRNAs can be deregulated in multiple disorders or in different types of cancer [21,22]. This observation is not surprising, considering the facts that each miRNA can bind multiple mRNA targets and that often there may be an overlap in the signal transduction cascade. Though changes Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in miRNA expression have been widely reported, whether these modulations are the cause or the consequence of malfunction is mostly unknown. Identification of multiple miRNA changes is extremely valuable because specific signatures of miRNA combinations unique to a normal physiological or pathological state can serve as a useful reference. In addition, assigning rank order of biological relevance can help address challenges Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries associated with identification of same miRNAs in multiple disease states.
Much progress has been made in oncology where GSK-3 miRNAs have been associated with disease progression, clinical outcome, recurrence, and metastasis [21,23�C25]. Studies of miRNAs encoded by pathogenic human viruses suggest that viral miRNAs can regulate host genes [26]. Differences in viral and host miRNAs can be used to develop diagnostics indicative of viral infections. In addition to major Seliciclib CDK2 disease areas, miRNA expression profiles have been used in a number of areas that impact human health.

Fiber taper structures have been extensively

Fiber taper structures have been extensively selleck chemicals studied in SMFs and photonic crystal fibers [16,17]. For such applications more gradual tapers with smaller taper angles are preferred, because they are focused on reducing the insertion loss, while for abrupt tapers or larger taper angles, light in the core will be partially coupled into the cladding of the fiber as cladding modes. SMF typically supports only the fundamental mode (LP01) in the core, while the other higher order linear polarization modes mainly propagate as cladding modes. For the gradual fiber taper with small taper angle, the relative change in the taper radius is very small, so the main portion of the power remains in the LP01 mode and does not couple with other higher order cladding modes as it propagates along the taper.
But for an abrupt taper, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the coupling occurs between the LP01 mode and the higher Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries order cladding modes. In our experiment, a short but abrupt taper is made in the TCF to excite higher order cladding modes. Compared with the total length of the interferometer, the taper zone is small, yet is sufficient to enhance the sensing sensitivity.3.?Experiments and Discussion3.1. Sensor FabricationThe TCF used in our experiment is a commercial fiber (Yangtze Ltd., Wuhan, China). It has core/cladding Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries diameters of 4.8/125 ��m, and the cut-off wavelength is 1,260 nm. An Ericsson fusion splicer (modal FSU 975), with a built-in core-offset attenuator program, was used to produce the lateral offset between the SMF and the TCF.
A C-band light source was used as the broad band source, and the output spectrum was monitored by an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA, Yokogawa, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Japan) with wavelength resolution of 15 pm. The transmission spectra of the IMIs with different TCF lengths were measured and are shown in Figure Cilengitide 2. It can be seen that the free spectral range decreases with the increasing interference length. In addition, the interference spectra are a little inhomogeneous. This is because that more than one cladding modes are available in the interference pattern.Figure 2.Transmission spectra of the IMIs with different TCF lengths.The short taper in the TCF was made by using electric-arc-heating method, which can also be achieved by the same fiber fusion splicer with the built-in taper program. Figure 3(a) shows a photograph of the core offset between the SMF and the TCF, and the offset is approximately 5 ��m.
Figure 3(b) shows the typical photograph of taper region. The taper length and waist diameter Enzalutamide are 697 ��m and 91 ��m, respectively.Figure 3.(a) Photograph of the lateral core offset between the SMF and TCF, the offset is ~5 ��m; (b) The taper range in the TCF, L = 697 ��m, D = 91 ��m.3.2. RI Measurement and DiscussionAn IMI was fabricated with 38 mm length TCF, and was used as the sensor head.

There have been several studies that have discussed and derived M

There have been several studies that have discussed and derived MAC protocols for UWASNs. In [7], the authors summarize some of the MAC protocols thereby that have been proposed for UWASNs. The multiple access control including Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and the medium access control including ALOHA, Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA), Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (MACA), and Floor Acquisition Multiple Access (FAMA), which use in terrestrial sensor network, have been modified in order to adapt to the nature of acoustic transmission in an underwater environment.Slotted FAMA [8] uses time slotting over floor acquisition multiple access (FAMA) discipline where the time line is divided into fixed-length slots.
It combines both carrier sensing (CS) and a dialogue between the source and destination Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries prior to data transmission. Although time slotting eliminates the asynchronous nature of the protocol and the need for excessively long control packets, guard times should be used in the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries slot duration. Moreover, Slotted FAMA assumes an infinite local buffer at each node which is unrealistic in resource limited sensor nodes. Finally, Slotted FAMA assumes that the clocks of the sensor nodes are fully synchronized.In [9,10], the authors use contention instead of Request To Send/Clear To Send (RTS/CTS) packets to acquire the channel in a distributive manner. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries This algorithm, namely T-Lohi, divides time into slots, but uses tones instead of control packet exchanges to contend for the channel.
However, T-Lohi ignores the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries hidden terminal and the exposed terminal problems. Furthermore, the use of tones requires the Entinostat use special hardware which increases the cost and the complexity of the sensor nodes.In [11], the authors propose a MAC protocol for dense networks. The used performance metric is energy consumption rather than the bandwidth. The algorithm selleck bio is designed to achieve a locally synchronized schedule even in the presence of long propagation delays. The authors assume synchronized node clocks. However, it is not clear how nodes go about reselecting transmission cycles when there is an overlap between two nodes. Moreover, the strategy for resolving hidden terminal problem was not clarified. In addi
Hyperspectral sensors, because of their high spectral detail over contiguous narrow bands, have proven to be a valuable tool for discriminating plants species [1�C4] compared to multispectral resolution sensors [5]. However, due to high dimensionality, working with hyperspectral data poses challenging problems such as redundancy, intensive computation, and singularity of covariance matrix inversion [6�C10].

Wavelet de-noising is the current state of the art technique used

Wavelet de-noising is the current state of the art technique used in the accuracy enhancement of inertial sensors [3,4] and is therefore used as a standard of comparison in this research. The surveyed literature indicated that the Daubechies family of wavelets and soft thresholding employing the principles of Stein’s Unbiased Risk Estimate (SURE) are typically kinase inhibitor Crizotinib used in pre-filtering inertial sensors.The proposed technique employs the fast orthogonal search (FOS) algorithm [5,6] to estimate the low frequency spectrum, which contains the vehicle motion dynamics and long Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries term noise, with a high frequency resolution and small number of frequency terms. The high-resolution spectral analysis capabilities Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of FOS will result in modeling the low frequencies with a small number of Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries terms.
The dynamic noise threshold of FOS should accept the vehicle motion dynamics while rejecting the long term noise since the motion dynamics Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries will likely have higher power than the long term noise terms.2.?Fast Orthogonal Search (FOS)The fast orthogonal search (FOS) algorithm [5�C9] is a general purpose modeling technique, which can be applied to spectral estimation and time-frequency analysis. The algorithm uses an arbitrary set of non-orthogonal candidate functions pm(n) and finds a functional expansion of an input y(n) in order to minimize the mean squared error (MSE) between the input and the functional expansion.The functional expansion of the input y(n) in terms of the arbitrary candidate functions pm(n) is given by:y(n)=��m=0Mampm(n)+��(n)(1)where am are the weights of the functional expansion, and ��(n) is the modeling error.
By choosing non-orthogonal candidate functions, there is no unique solution for Equation (1). However, FOS may model the input with fewer model terms than an orthogonal functional expansion [5]. For example, the fast Fourier transform (FFT) uses a basis set of Dacomitinib complex sinusoidal functions that Sorafenib Raf-1 have an integral number of periods in the record length [10]. For the FFT to model a frequency that does not have an integral number of periods in the record length, energy is spread into all the other frequencies, which is a phenomena known as spectral leakage [5,9,11]. By using candidate functions that are non-orthogonal, FOS may be able to model this frequency between two FFT bins with a single term resulting in many fewer weighting terms in the model [5,9].

patho physiological characteristics of lung tissue inflammation d

patho physiological characteristics of lung tissue inflammation during severe asthma differ significantly from those of the milder disease. While the airway tissues of mild asthmatics usually present preferential Th2 cytokine profile, those from severe asthmatics show a Th17 lymphocyte infiltration and elevated cytokine levels, particularly Th1 cytokines, IL 17 and TGF B. Many T helper cytokines were shown to play a significant role in regulating TGF B expression and function in different types of cells. However, their direct role in regulating eosinophil ability to produce pro fibrotic cytokines was not studied. To investi gate that, we first determined the basal expression levels of pro fibrotic cytokines within peripheral blood eosinophils of 10 asthmatic and non asthmatic individuals using real time RT PCR.

The levels of expression of TGF B and IL 11 mRNA in eosinophils isolated from asthmatic individuals Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries were comparable to those isolated from healthy controls. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Eosinophil supernatant IL 11 and TGF B cytokines levels were also determined in the two groups using ELISA assay. Similarly, no change in the secreted levels of these pro fibrotic cytokines was detected between the two groups. We then investigated whether Th1 and Th2 cytokines play a role in regulating eosino phils pro fibrotic cytokines production. To do that, we stimulated 2��106 eosinophil cells isolated from 10 asth matic as well as healthy individuals with Th1, and Th2 cytokines as well as GM CSF for 4 hrs. Total RNA was then extracted from stimulated eosinophils and the level of IL 11 and TGF B was determined using real time RT PCR.

As shown in Figure 1C D, stimulating asthmatic Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries eosinophils with Th1 or Th2 cytokines did not affect TGF B or IL Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 11 m RNA levels. Similar results were obtained Brefeldin_A at higher concentrations of Th1 and Th2 cytokines as well as for eosinophils isolated from healthy controls. These results indicated that neither Th1 nor Th2 cytokines play a significant role in regulating expression of eosinophil derived pro fibrotic cytokines. Th17 cytokines enhance the expression of eosinophil derived pro fibrotic cytokines in asthmatic individuals IL 17A enhanced the production of IL 6 and IL 11 in bronchial fibroblasts while IL 17 F was shown to induce the expression of TGF B in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

IL 17A and IL 17 F were recently shown to be over expressed in bronchial lung tissue of asthmatic patients compared to healthy controls and their level of expression was associated with the severity of the diseases. Interestingly, using FACS and western analysis, eosinophils were also shown to express receptors for Th17 cytokines. We, therefore, hypothesised that Th17 cytokines may induce eosinophils to produce pro fibrotic cytokines. To investi gate that, we first determined the expression levels of IL 17R on eosinophils isolated from both groups. As in dicated in Figure 2A, eosinophils from both healthy and asthmatic subjects express IL 17R. Although asthmat