“P>Legume root architecture involves not only elaborati

“P>Legume root architecture involves not only elaboration of the root system by the formation of lateral roots but also the formation of symbiotic root nodules in association with nitrogen-fixing soil rhizobia. The Medicago truncatula LATD/NIP gene plays an essential role in the development of both primary and lateral roots as well as nodule development. We have cloned the

LATD/NIP gene and show that it encodes a member of the NRT1(PTR) transporter family. LATD/NIP is expressed throughout the plant. pLATD/NIP-GFP promoter-reporter fusions in transgenic roots establish the spatial expression of LATD/NIP in primary root, lateral root and nodule meristems and the surrounding cells. Expression Crenigacestat solubility dmso of LATD/NIP is regulated by hormones, in particular by abscisic acid which has been previously shown to rescue the primary and lateral root meristem arrest of latd mutants. latd mutants respond normally to

ammonium but have defects in responses of the root architecture to nitrate. Taken together, these results suggest that LATD/NIP may encode a nitrate transporter or transporter of another compound.”
“Biofilm is one of the important virulence factors of staphylococci that plays a role in many device-related infections such as native valve endocarditis, otitis media, urinary tract infections, cystic fibrosis, acute septic arthritis, etc. Biofilm is a microbially BMS-777607 purchase derived sessile community of microorganisms, developed

either from single or multiple microorganisms. Formation of biofilm is a two-step process: adherence of cells to a surface and accumulation of cells to form multilayered cell clusters. A trademark of biofilm formation in staphylococci is the production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin. In the formation and regulation of biofilm, some biosynthetic MK-8931 clinical trial genes (icaADBC) and some regulatory genes (icaR, sar, agr, rbf, Sigma B) are involved. In this article, we reviewed the structure and formation of staphylococcal biofilm and its role in medical infections.”
“By temporarily deferring the repair of DNA lesions encountered during replication, the bypass of DNA damage is critical to the ability of cells to withstand genomic insults. Damage bypass can be achieved either by recombinational mechanisms that are generally accurate or by a process called translesion synthesis. Translesion synthesis involves replacing the stalled replicative polymerase with one of a number of specialized DNA polymerases whose active sites are able to tolerate a distorted or damaged DNA template. While this property allows the translesion polymerases to synthesize across damaged bases, it does so with the trade-off of an increased mutation rate. The deployment of these enzymes must therefore be carefully regulated.

Results: Twenty-two patients failed to attend follow-up visits (1

Results: Twenty-two patients failed to attend follow-up visits (11 in Group A, 9 in Group B, 2 in Group C, p < 0.03). Overall, we detoxified 70% of the whole cohort, GSK2118436 chemical structure 60.1% of the patients in Group A and in Group B, and 88.8% of those in Group C (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: Inpatient withdrawal is significantly more effective than advice alone or an outpatient

strategy in complicated MOH patients.”
“Background: Substantial decline in malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality has been reported in several countries where new malaria control strategies have been implemented. In Gabon, the national malaria policy changed in 2003, according to the WHO recommendations. The trend in malaria morbidity was evaluated among febrile children before and after their implementation

in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon.

Methods: From August 2000 to December 2008, febrile paediatric outpatients and buy PF-6463922 inpatients, under 11 years of age, were screened for malaria by microscopic examination at the Malaria Clinical Research Unit (MCRU) located in the largest public hospital in Gabon. Climatic data were also collected.

Results: In total, 28,092 febrile children were examined; those under five years always represented more than 70%. The proportion of malaria-positive slides was 45% in 2000, and declined to 15% in 2008. The median age of children with a positive blood smear increased from 24(15-48) to 41(21-72) months over the study period (p < 0.01). Rainfall patterns had no impact on the decline observed throughout the study period.

Conclusion: The decrease of malaria prevalence among febrile children during the last nine years is observed following the introduction of new strategies of malaria cases management, and may announce epidemiological changes. Moreover, preventive measures must be extended selleckchem to children older than five years.”

blend samples of cardanol-based epoxidized novolac resin containing varying concentrations of carboxyl-terminated poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile) (CTBN) ranging between 0 and 25 wt % with an interval of 5 wt % were prepared. The epoxidized novolac resin (ECF) was synthesized from the epoxidation of cardanol-based novolac-type phenolic resin (CF) with molar excess of epichlorohydrin (i.e., about 10 mol at 120 degrees C in basic medium). The CF resin was synthesized with a molar ratio of 1 : 0.5 of CF using dicarboxylic acid catalyst such as succinic acid at 120 degrees C for 5 h. The pure epoxy and its blend were cured with stoichiometric amounts of polyamine curing agent. The formation of various products during the synthesis of cardanol-based novolac resin, epoxidized novolac resin, and blending of epoxidized novolac resin with CTBN have been studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis. Further, a reaction mechanism for the step-growth reaction was proposed on the basis of the results of FTIR analysis.

This can explain the phenomenon of a “”wandering pacemaker”" and

This can explain the phenomenon of a “”wandering pacemaker”" and concomitant changes in the P-wave morphology. Extensive knowledge now exists regarding the molecular architecture of the node (in particular, the expression

of ion channels) and how this relates to pacemaking. This review is an up-to-date summary of the current state of our appreciation of the above topics. (PACE 2010; 1392-1406).”
“Background: Endothelial infection has an important role in the pathogenesis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). In this study, we investigated the causes of vascular endothelial damage in patients with CCHF.

Methods: This prospective case-controlled study was carried out at Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital between April and September learn more 2007. Seventy-five patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of CCHF and 88 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, sP-selectin, sL-selectin), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were investigated in these patients by quantitative sandwich ELISA technique.

Results: In the patient group, serum levels of sVCAM-1, sL-selectin and MIF were significantly higher than

in the control group; AR-13324 order serum levels of sICAM-1, sP-selectin, sE-selectin, and VEGF were significantly lower than in the control group. Serum levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were Thiazovivin Cell Cycle inhibitor significantly higher in severe cases than in non-severe cases, whereas the serum level of VEGF was significantly lower. sVCAM-1 was significantly higher in non-survivors than in survivors, while serum VEGF was significantly lower in non-survivors. The optimum cut-offs of sVCAM-1 and VEGF for the prediction of mortality were 205 ng/ml and 125 ng/ml, respectively. At these cut-offs, sVCAM-1

and VEGF had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 42.5% and 54.5%, respectively, in identifying CCHF patients who would die from the disease. The positive predictive values were 19% and 23%, respectively; negative predictive values were 100% for both.

Conclusion: Endothelial activation can affect the course of CCHF, and vascular endothelial damage is probably indirect. Further studies are needed for general conclusions to be drawn. (C) 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases, substrate binding proteins, such as VHL-box, SOCS-box or the F-box proteins, recruit substrates for ubiquitination, accurately positioning and orienting the substrates for ubiquitin transfer. Yet, how the E3 machinery precisely positions the substrate is unknown.

The histopathological approach revealed marked changes in the Pur

The histopathological approach revealed marked changes in the Purkinje cells, myleinated nerve fibers and granular cells of ASP-treated animals. Some of these cells appeared with deeply stained PCI-32765 cell line cytoplasm. Ultrastructural examination showed Purkinje cells with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and condensed mitochondria. Granular cells appeared with less c nuclei and surrounded by dissolution of most Mossy rosettes structures. Most myelinated nerve fibers showed thickening of myelinated sheath and others showed splitting of their myelin sheath. The histopathological,

immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations were much less observed in concomitant use of P. anisum oil with ASP. Cerebellar cortex is considered target areas of ASP neurotoxicity, while P. anisum oil, when used in combination with ASP displays a protective action against neurotoxicity.”
“One new tetralone, monaspurpurone (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of a yellow mutant of the fungus Monascus purpureus BCRC 38113 (Eurotiaceae) grown on rice,

along with five known compounds, -sitosteryl palmitate (2), ergosterol (3), ankaflavin (4), monascin (5) and p-nitrophenol (6). They were characterised on the basis of spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. All the isolates were also evaluated for the scavenging properties towards the DPPH in TLC autographic and spectroscopic assays.”
“Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Abies holophylla led to the isolation of two new and 40 known compounds. Their structures were established primarily Selleckchem Small molecule library by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. Compound 19 showed the most significant activity against the A549 lung Selleckchem Cyclopamine cancer cell line with an IC50 value of 10.3 mu g/mL. (C) 2012 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Crinophagy is a well-described ultraphysiological phenomenon encountered in a variety of cells and tissues. This process reflects a form of autophagy in which degradation of excess or nonfunctional cellular constituents occurs, specifically of neuroendocrine granules. The diagnostic ultrastructural features are the identification of neuroendocrine

granules within lysosomes, often encased in or accompanied by myelin bodies. An impressive variety of neuroendocrine/secretory cells and tumors have demonstrated crinophagy from the neuroendocrine cells of the pancreas, small bowel, prostate, and urinary tract. To our knowledge, however, crinophagy has not been previously described in neuroblastoma, despite the fact that these tumors characteristically produce neuroendocrine granules in abundance. This case further supports the idea that crinophagy represents a common ultrastructural mechanism for the disposal and degradation of excess neuroendocrine granules.”
“Resveratrol (1) and oxyresveratrol (2) are phytoalexins with antioxidant activities (AAs) and proposed effects against several pathological processes.

“Background: Even though specific agents for the treatment

“Background: Even though specific agents for the treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) are available, in PH patients, physical capacity and quality of life (QoL) are often restricted and survival is reduced. Objectives: This study prospectively investigated the long-term effects of respiratory and exercise training in patients with severe chronic PH regarding safety, time to clinical worsening and survival. selleck chemicals Methods: Fifty-eight consecutive patients with severe

PH on stable disease-targeted medication received exercise and respiratory training in hospital for 3 weeks and continued at home. They were prospectively followed for 24 8 12 months. Primary endpoints were time to clinical worsening and survival. Adverse events and changes in the 6-min walking test, QoL, WHO functional class and gas exchange were secondary endpoints and were evaluated at baseline and at weeks 3 and 15. Results: All patients tolerated the exercise training well without severe adverse events. In week 15, 6-min walking test results were significantly improved compared to baseline (by 84 +/- 49 m, p

< 0.001), as well as QoL scores, WHO functional class (from Doramapimod research buy 2.9 +/- 0.5 to 2.6 +/- 0.6, p < 0.01), peak oxygen consumption (from 12.5 +/- 3.0 to 14.6 +/- 3.9 ml/min/kg, p < 0.001), heart rate at rest (from 75 +/- 12 to 61 +/- 18 beats/min, p < 0.001) and maximal workload (from 65 +/- 21 to 80 +/- 25 W, p < 0.001). Survival at 1 and 2 years was 100 and 95%, respectively. Fifteen events occurred during the follow-up. Conclusion: This study indicates that exercise

and respiratory training as add-on to medical treatment may improve Smad inhibitor exercise capacity and QoL, and that they have a good long-term safety in the described setting. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Non-ablative bipolar and monopolar radiofrequency devices have been shown to be effective for the treatment of facial wrinkles. Recently, novel fractionated microneedle radiofrequency (FMRF) devices have been introduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of FMRF for the treatment of periorbital wrinkles. Eleven women, aged 3459years, with periorbital wrinkles underwent three sessions of FMRF at 3-week intervals with a follow-up period of 3months after treatment. Clinical improvement was evaluated using the Fitzpatrick Wrinkle Classification System (FWCS) and subjective satisfaction on a visual analog scale (VAS). The FWCS scores demonstrated significant improvement in periorbital wrinkles after treatment (P<0.001). A satisfaction VAS score of more than 5, indicating high satisfaction, was obtained from 10 of 11 patients (91%) 3months after treatment, and the mean satisfaction VAS score (n=11) was 6.7.

Baseline data for the cohort were derived from questionnaire surv

Baseline data for the cohort were derived from questionnaire surveys conducted in 2000, 2001 and 2002 among employees reaching 40, 45, 50, 55 or 60 years of age in each year. The number of GNS-1480 chemical structure responders at baseline was 8960 (80% women, response rate 67%). Additional age-based health examination data were available. A follow up survey was conducted in 2007 yielding 7332 responders (response rate 83%).

Measures of health include health behaviours, self-rated health, common mental disorders, functioning, pain, sleep problems, angina symptoms and major diseases. Social determinants include socio-demographics, socio-economic circumstances, working conditions, social support, and work-family interface. Further register linkages include sickness absence, hospital discharge, prescribed drugs, and retirement updated at the end of 2010. The cohort allows comparisons with the Whitehall II study, London, UK, and the Japanese Civil Servants Study from western Japan. The cohort data are available for collaborative research at Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland.”
“Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an unsolved problem in the KU-57788 cell line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Despite the high seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 (PVB19) among HIV-1-positive

patients, reports on PVB19-induced anemia, especially that associated with PVB19-related IRIS, in these patients are limited. We present the case of a man with acquired

immunodeficiency syndrome who developed severe transfusion-dependent anemia and was seropositive and borderline positive for immunoglobulin-M and IgG antibodies against PVB19, respectively. PVB19-DNA was also detected in his serum. The patient was diagnosed with pure red cell anemia (PRCA) caused by a primary PVB19 infection and was treated with periodical blood transfusions. However, he subsequently tested negative for IgG antibodies and developed chronic severe anemia with high levels of PVB19 viremia. This indicated a transition from primary to persistent infection. After initiation of highly active antiretroviral LDK378 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor therapy, the patient showed an inflammatory reaction with rapid deterioration of anemia and seroconversion of the IgG antibody to PVB19. Subsequently, PRCA was completely resolved, but the patient’s serum still contained low levels of PVB19-DNA. Thus, this was a case of IRIS associated with PVB19 infection. Our report highlights the significance of seroconversion to PVB19 in the diagnosis of IRIS and re-emphasizes the finding that persistently high levels of PVB19 viremia after primary infection are probably because of the lack of protective antibodies.”
“BACKGROUND: Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) is a remarkable index reflecting the progression of kidney disease in diabetic subjects. The link between UAER and lipid metabolism is still unclear. The correlation of Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) to albuminuria has been investigated.

cloacae “
“Polymer nanocomposites consisting of single-walle

“Polymer nanocomposites consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and poly(vinyl chloride) were prepared by casting technique. The complex viscosity increased with increasing SWCNTs content, and it had a percolation concentration threshold equal

to 0.45 wt % of SWCNTs. The storage modulus, G’, increased with increasing either SWCNTs content or frequency. A gradual decrease in the terminal zone slope of G’ for the nanocomposites with increasing SWCNTs content may be explained by the fact that the nanotubenanotube interactions will be dominant at higher CNTs content, and lead to the formation of the interconnected or GSK1120212 in vivo network-like structures of SWCNTs in the polymer nanocomposites. The rheological loss factor indicates two relaxation peaks at frequencies of 0.11 and 12.8 Hz due to the interaction between SWCNTs and polymer chains and glass transition, respectively. Dynamic mechanical properties were measured for the prepared composites. The results indicate that the storage modulus changes steadily, and the tand peaks are less intense for high SWCNTs content. Tensile tests were PF-04929113 concentration measured and depicted by an increase in the elastic modulus with increasing SWCNTs content, but it decreases for all composites as the testing temperature increased. (C) 2011

Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Reactive material fragment is an extremely efficient damage enhancement technology that

incorporates the defeat mechanisms of kinetic energy and chemical energy. In this paper, the polymer-based reactive material fragment/target interactions are investigated. Related dynamic testing techniques for energy release characteristics of reactive material fragments are presented, and a series of ballistic experiments is conducted. The results show the reactive material fragment, which perforates the closed test chamber, undergoes a violent chemical reaction under highly dynamic loads and releases great amounts of thermo-chemical energy on the interior. Elafibranor clinical trial The impact-initiated process and energy release behavior are markedly influenced by the impact velocity, indicating the material’s fracture is of importance to the reaction. A relationship between the maximum pressure inside the chamber and the reaction efficiency is derived to analyze the influence quantitatively, and the venting effects are also considered. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3644974]“
“Hodgkin disease (HD) is a malignancy of primarily B lymphocytes that has the unique ability to cause immunodeficiency, as well as provide immune evasion mechanisms to avoid self-destruction. In this review, the authors discuss Hodgkin disease, its association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the immune deficiency caused by HD, and tumor immune evasion mechanisms.

“Processible composites of emeraldine salt form of polyani

“Processible composites of emeraldine salt form of polyaniline (PANI) with polyacrylic acid (PAA) are synthesized and studied for their structural, electrical, mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical

properties. The processible conducting composites of various weight percentage from 20 wt % to 90 wt % (of PANI) have been prepared by mixing the PANI and PAA under vigorous stirring and sonication conditions. Self-standing films of electroactive homogeneous composites are obtained by solution casting method. A significant improvement in processibility, crystallinity, and thermal stability is observed in the composites; however, the electrical conductivity decreased remarkably as the percentage of PANI is decreased in the composites. The 60 wt % PANI-PAA composite BKM120 showed crystalline structural property with orthorhombic crystal system and cell parameters as a = 5.93 angstrom, b = 7.57 angstrom, and c = 10.11 angstrom. The 60 wt % PANI-PAA composite also showed better thermal stability and highest capacitance HM781-36B amongst all the composites and used as an active material for development of electrochemical capacitors

(parallel plate assembly). The processible composites based electrochemical capacitors using 0.5 M NaClO(4)-Acetonitril electrolyte showed super capacitance with ease in fabrication and cost effectiveness in comparison to other similar materials based capacitors. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 874-882, 2009″
“Background: High incidence rates of breast cancer (BC) emphasize the need to address health-related quality of life (QoL) in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the QoL, symptom prevalence

and management, functional ability, and quality of care in Lebanese women with BC at a tertiary health care facility.

Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive survey targeting Lebanese adults with cancer and using a combination of four instruments: European Organization for Research and treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire, Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale; Barthel NU7441 chemical structure Index; Needs at End of life Screening Tool, and a demographic/clinical characteristics section. 89 breast cancer patients participated in the study; data was collected from 2009 to 2010. Descriptive analysis in addition to independent sample t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson r correlation were used for data analysis.

Results: The most prevalent symptoms were feeling nervous, feeling sad, lack of energy, and pain; symptom management was inadequate; high scores were reported on functional ability, medical care, spirituality, and relationships. Younger, single, and better educated participants who were diagnosed for less than 30 months, had no metastasis, and paid less than $450 dollars per month on medical expenses showed better global health status/QoL.

A statistical significance was found between uroflow rates Linea

A statistical significance was found between uroflow rates. Linear regression analysis gave no correlation between antioxidants (serum or urine) and changes in symptom scores or grape juice consumption. Conclusions Our study did not demonstrate any difference in

LUTS in men taking a daily 240ml 100% grape juice versus placebo after 3 months. Neurourol. Urodynam. 32: 261265, 2013. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Background: Better and more rapid tests are needed for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE), given the known limitations of conventional diagnostic tests. Objectives: To estimate diagnostic accuracy of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test (and its components) using data-derived cutoffs in pleural fluid. Methods: The QFT-GIT test was performed on whole blood and pleural fluid from 43 patients with TPE and 29 control subjects (non-TPE). To achieve the objective, QFT-GIT test, estimating selleck products likelihood ratios and receiver operating curve analysis were performed. Results: The sensitivity and specificity using the QFT-GIT for the diagnosis of TPE

were 48.8% and 79.3%, respectively, in pleural fluid. The best cutoff points for tuberculosis (TB) antigen, nil and TB antigen minus nil results were estimated at 0.70, 0.90 and 0.30 IU/ml, respectively. Area under the curve of TB antigen IFN-gamma response was PLX3397 chemical structure 0.86 (CI: 0.76-0.93), nil tube was 0.80 (CI: 0.69-0.89) and TB antigen minus nil tube was 0.82 (CI: 0.72-0.90). When the best cutoff scores of the nil tubes were

set at this value, the results of a likelihood ratio of a positive and a negative test were 9.44 (7.4-12.0) CAL-101 cell line and 0.37 (0.09-1.5), respectively. The percentages of indeterminate results in pleural fluid among the TPE cases were 42% (most of them caused by high nil IFN-gamma values) using the QFT-GIT test. Conclusion: QFT-GIT test or its components have poor accuracy in the diagnosis of TPE, largely because of a high number of indeterminate results due to high background IFN-gamma production in the TPE. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Aims To investigate the factors responsible for failure in improvement of subjective symptoms following silodosin treatment on the basis of findings of a pressure-flow study (PFS). Methods A post hoc analysis of a prospective study to investigate the efficacy of silodosin in patients with BPH was conducted, and 104 patients were analyzed. The patients were administered silodosin 8mg/day for 4 weeks. At the baseline and after treatment, subjective symptoms were evaluated using the IPSS and OABSS. A PFS was conducted to measure storage and voiding function. The patients were divided into two groups: good responders (GR), patients with 25% or more improvement in IPSS, and poor responders (PR), <25% improvement. The clinical and objective findings for the two groups were compared. Results The mean IPSS and OABSS significantly improved in GR, but no significant improvement was observed in PR.

Dependent variables included early or late amputation and mortali

Dependent variables included early or late amputation and mortality.

Results: The civilian group had 850 open tibia fractures with 45 amputations; the military group had 21 amputation patients Nepicastat research buy (3 bilateral) in 115 open tibia fractures. Military group patients were more severely injured, more likely have hypotension, and had a higher amputation rate for G-A IIIB and IIIC fractures

then civilian group patients. Blast mechanism was seen in the majority of military group patients and was rare in the civilian group. MESS scores had poor sensitivity (0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.29-0.64) in predicting the need for amputation in the civilian group; in the military group sensitivity was better (0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.85), but successful limb salvage

was still possible in most cases with an MESS score of >= 7 when attempted.

Conclusion: Despite current therapy, limb salvage for G-A IIIB and IIIC grades are significantly worse for open tibia fractures as a result of blast injury when compared with typical civilian mechanisms. MESS scores do not adequately predict likelihood of limb salvage in combat or civilian open tibia fractures.”
“AimsTo investigate the genetic and environmental contributions to age at first drink (AFD) and age first gambled (AFG), SNS-032 assess their overlap and examine sex differences.

DesignUnivariate twin models were fitted to decompose the variation in AFD and AFG into additive genetic, shared environmental BMS-345541 manufacturer and

unique environmental factors. Bivariate genetic models were fitted to assess the genetic and environmental contributions to the sources of covariation in AFD and AFG.

SettingNational Australian Twin Registry.

ParticipantsA total of 4542 same-sex and opposite-sex twins aged 32-43 years, 42% male and 58% female.

MeasurementsAFD and AFG were assessed via structured psychiatric telephone interviews. Age of onset was treated as both continuous and categorical (early/late onset).

FindingsAFD and AFG were modestly correlated (r=0.18). Unique environmental influences explained a substantial proportion of the variation in both AFD (0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.50-0.61) and AFG (0.66, 95% CI=0.59-0.72), but these influences were uncorrelated (r(E)=0.01). Additive genetic factors explained a notable proportion of variation in AFG (0.21, 95% CI=0.003-0.39), while shared environmental factors were important for AFD (0.31, 95% CI=0.15-0.46). Among men, genetic factors influenced variation in AFG but not in AFD and shared environmental factors influenced variation in AFD but not in AFG. Among women, shared environmental factors influenced variation in both AFD and AFG, but these environmental factors were not significantly correlated (r(C)=0.09).

ConclusionsAmong Australian twins, age at first drink and age first gambled are influenced by distinct unique environmental factors, and the genetic and environmental underpinnings of both phenotypes differ in men and women.