This paper provides an overview of the outcomes of the research

This paper provides an overview of the outcomes of the research

program, some of which require further research before implementation. It is suggested that an entire supply-chain approach be applied to establish Adriamycin the most efficient and cost-effective way of reducing the incidence of high rigor temperature.”
“The classic Jones fracture involves the fifth metatarsal at the level of the proximal diaphyseal-metaphyseal junction. The mainstay of surgical treatment for the Jones fracture is intramedullary screw fixation. There is no consensus of the type or material of screw that should be used. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to test the hypothesis that there is no clinical difference in the incidence of healing, or complications, when comparing stainless steel to titanium cannulated screws used in Jones fracture open-reduction internal fixation (ORIF). Data were collected on a total of 53 patients (fractures) that were fixed with either cannulated titanium screws (Ti

group) or cannulated stainless steel screws (SS group). The postoperative protocol was standardized. The mean time to radiographic union was 11.7 +/- 5.1 weeks in the Ti group and 13.4 +/- 5.7 weeks in the SS group (P – .333). The overall union rate for the Ti group was 36/37 (97%) and 14/16 (88%) in the Bromosporine in vivo SS group (P = .213). Complications were rare in both groups,

and the prevalence was not statistically significantly different (P > .05). There was 1 patient with an asymptomatic radiographic nonunion in the Ti group, and this SB273005 patient elected not to undergo revision. There were 2 nonunions in the SS group. One was revised and went on to heal and the other is awaiting revision. Our study has demonstrated the decision to use stainless steel or titanium can be left to patient constraints, such as allergies, or physician preference without compromising the clinical result. (C) 2011 by the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. All rights reserved.”
“A fuzzy expert system was used in this study to control an intelligent air-cushion tracked vehicle (IACTV) as it operated in a swamp peat terrain. The system was effective in controlling the intelligent air-cushion vehicle while measuring the vehicle traction (TE), motion resistance (MR), power consumption (PC), cushion clearance height (CCH) and cushion pressure (CP). An ultrasonic displacement sensor, pull-in solenoid electromagnetic switch, pressure-control sensor, microcontroller, and battery pH sensor were incorporated into the fuzzy expert system (FES) to experimentally determine the TE, MR, PC, CCH, and CP.

Thus, Th17 cells can promote humoral autoirnmunity via a novel me

Thus, Th17 cells can promote humoral autoirnmunity via a novel mechanism that involves CCL2.”
“Aims: A bridging ligand 2,4,6-pyridine tricarboxylic acid (H(3)ptc) and its manganese(II) complex [Mn(Hptc)(phen)(OH)]n(Hptc = 2,4,6-pyridine tricarboxylic acid, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized and characterized.\n\nMain methods: The interaction with DNA (HeLa and KB) was carried out by fluorescence

spectrum and gel electrophoresis assay. Adriamycin In vitro apoptosis assay and cytotoxicity assay detect the manganese (II) complex interaction with cancer cells.\n\nKey findings: Fluorescence spectrum demonstrated the ability of the complexes to interact with DNA in an intercalative mode. Gel electrophoresis assay exhibited more effective DNA-cleavage activity. In vitro apoptosis assay of the complexes were examined on HeLa and KB cells, exhibited cytotoxic specificity and a significant cancer cell inhibitory rate.\n\nSignificance: The complex may be a latent antitumor agent as a result of its unique interaction mode with DNA and cancer cells inhibition effect. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation

for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating click here Fludarabine datasheet through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis cells that respond to sudden nutrient limitation with multiple rounds of growth and division before differentiating into spores. A well-characterized genetic circuit controls the concentration and phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A,

which rises to a critical concentration to initiate sporulation. However, it remains unclear how this circuit enables cells to defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles. Using quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of Spo0A dynamics in individual cells, we observed pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation at a characteristic cell cycle phase. Pulse amplitudes grew systematically and cell-autonomously over multiple cell cycles leading up to sporulation. This pulse growth required a key positive feedback loop involving the sporulation kinases, without which the deferral of sporulation became ultrasensitive to kinase expression. Thus, deferral is controlled by a pulsed positive feedback loop in which kinase expression is activated by pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation. This pulsed positive feedback architecture provides a more robust mechanism for setting deferral times than constitutive kinase expression.

The aim of this observational study was to compare technical and

The aim of this observational study was to compare technical and clinical outcomes of a new construction technique for BBAVF (n-BBAVF) with that of the standard one-stage GSI-IX side-artery to end-vein transposed BBAVF (t-BBAVF). A n-BBAVF is constructed in the following way: basilic vein and brachial artery are isolated. Patency of the proximal and distal vein is verified by injecting warmed (37 degrees C) saline solution. A venotomy and an arterotomy of 4-5 mm are performed. The two vessels are prepared for a side-to-side

anastomosis without transposition of the vein. The latter allows both an antegrade and retrograde flow along the basilic vein, both proximally and distally to the anastomosis with more sites available for the venipunctures of the dialysis. Thirty BBAVFs were constructed as the secondary or tertiary vascular access in 30 patients over a 4-year period: 17 patients with adequate forearm basilic vein underwent the construction of a n-BBAVF; 13 underwent the construction of a t-BBAVF. The construction of a n-BBAVF requires a significantly lesser surgical time (55.0 +/- 9.0 minutes vs. 115.0 +/- 18.0, p < 0.0001), has fewer surgical complications (5.9% vs. 46.2%, p < 0.0001), and a reduced time to first use (24.5 +/- 6.3 vs. 37.7 +/- 9.1 days, p < 0.0001) than that of a t-BBAVF.

n-BBAVFs Selleckchem Small molecule library showed a relatively low rate of thrombosis per patient-year at risk (0.067 at 1 year and 0.099 at 2 years). The latter was significantly lower at 1 year when compared with t-BBAVFs (0.067 vs. 0.285; p < 0.004). Our policy of “all AVFs should be autogenous” led us to the construction of a vascular access which is based on a side-to-side anastomosis between the brachial artery and the basilic vein without transposition of the vein allowing both antegrade and retrograde

flow into the basilic vein. The results of this surgical technique appear satisfactory.”
“To perform esophageal reconstruction in patients after distal gastrectomy colonic or jejunal transplant is usually used. But the use of remnant stomach in esophagoplasty appears to selleck be an interesting idea. This method preserves some advantages of esophagogastroplasty as such. It is possible to pull-up the remnant stomach to the needed level, using mobilization with the spleen and pancreatic tail and its transposition into the left pleural cavity. This type of esophageal replacement, currently widely adopted in China, was proposed and first performed in 1958 by Professor A. A. Rusanov from Russia (former USSR). Different aspects of this method including historical are discussed in the literature review. (C) 2010 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BackgroundMegestrol acetate (MA) is an appetite stimulant with efficacy in promoting weight gain in adults with cancer-associated anorexia-cachexia.

Results One trainer and two trainees with little experience i

\n\nResults One trainer and two trainees with little experience in gynecological ultrasound (one gynecologist and one radiologist) participated in this study. LC-CUSUM graphs showed that competence was achieved after 170 or 185 examinations. The objectives for diagnostic performance were achieved after assessment of the second set of 3D volumes (200 cases) for each trainee.\n\nConclusions The proposed training program appears to be feasible. High diagnostic performance can be achieved after analysis of 200 cases and maintained thereafter.

Copyright (C) 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.”
“Several methods have been demonstrated in the recovery and purification of cutinase; however, hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography (HIMC) has yet to be implemented for this purpose. In this study, two factors, that GSK126 supplier is, buffer pH and ammonium sulphate concentration for HIMC operation, were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), aiming to obtain the highest cutinase purification factor and recovery possible. The experimental design used was a central composite design (CCD) comprised of 13 experimental runs. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that a quadratic model best

represented the system. Based on the R-2 values, it can be concluded that around 90% of the variability in the system can be explained by the fitted models. The optimized HIMC conditions were buffer pH selleck kinase inhibitor 6.0 and 1.3M ammonium sulphate, which was expected to provide 27-fold cutinase purification factor and 85% recovery. However, the actual values deviated from the predicted values with 13% and 18% error, respectively. The statistical analysis showed that only the ammonium sulphate concentration had a great influence on cutinase purification factor. Meanwhile, for cutinase recovery, both parameters were important in determining the optimal condition for cutinase adsorption

and desorption to the chromatographic media.”
“Soil warming from global climate change could increase decomposition of fine woody debris (FWD), but debris size and quality may mitigate this effect. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of soil warming on decomposition of fine woody debris of differing size and quality.\n\nWe placed FWD of two size classes (2 x 20 cm and 4 x 40 cm) and four species (Acer saccharum, Betula lenta, Quercus rubra and Tsuga canadensis) in a soil warming and ambient area at Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts. We collected the debris from each area over two years and measured mass loss and lignin concentration.\n\nWarming increased mass loss for all species and size classes (by as much as 30%), but larger debris and debris with higher initial lignin content decomposed slower than smaller debris and debris with lower initial lignin content. Lignin degradation did not follow the same trends as mass loss. Lignin loss from the most lignin-rich species, T.

Our estimates of occupancy suggest that temperature, SC, and pH h

Our estimates of occupancy suggest that temperature, SC, and pH have some importance in structuring stream salamander distribution.”
“GnRH neuron activity is dependent on gonadal steroid hormone feedback. Altered synaptic input may be one mechanism by which steroids

modify GnRH neuron activity. In other neuronal populations, steroid hormones have been shown to elicit profound effects on dendritic spine density, a measure of excitatory synaptic input. The present study examined gonadal steroid feedback effects on GnRH neuron spine density in female GnRH-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice. Immunocytochemical labeling of GFP in this model reveals fine morphological details of GnRH neurons. Spine density and ICG-001 purchase other features were quantified by confocal analysis. Ovariectomy resulted in a significant reduction in somatic spine density (27%, P < 0.05) compared with sham-operated diestrous females. However, dendritic spine density was unaltered. Positive feedback effects of estradiol on spine density were investigated using a protocol to mimic the GnRH/LH surge.

Ten GnRH-GFP mice underwent an established protocol, receiving either estradiol benzoate (1 mu g per 20 g body weight) or vehicle (n = 5/group) Selleckchem MS 275 32 h prior to being killed during the expected surge. Double-label immunofluorescence showed that all estradiol-treated females expressed cFos in a subpopulation of GnRH neurons. Spine density was determined by confocal analysis of activated (cFos-positive, n = 10 neurons/animal) and nonactivated (cFos-negative, n = 10 neurons/animal) GnRH neurons from estradiol-treated animals and for GnRH neurons (n = 20 neurons/animal)

from nonsurged controls (all cFos negative). Activated GnRH neurons (cFos positive) showed a dramatic 60% increase in total spine density (0.78 +/- 0.06 spines/mu m) compared with nonactivated GnRH neurons (0.50 +/- 0.01 spines/mu m) in estradiol-treated animals (P < 0.001). Both somatic and dendritic spine density was significantly increased. Spine density was not different between nonactivated GnRH neurons from surged animals (0.50 +/- 0.01 spines/mu m) and GnRH neurons from nonsurged animals (0.51 +/- 0.06 spines/mu m). These data demonstrate Crenolanib in vitro that positive feedback levels of estradiol stimulate a robust increase in spine density specifically in those GnRH neurons that are activated at the time of the GnRH/LH surge. (Endocrinology 152: 4906-4914, 2011)”
“Nickel-containing alloys are in common use for dental restorations, but tend to corrode and release Ni(II) in service. Ni(II) increases secretion of several inflammatory cytokines from activated monocytic cells, suggesting that nickel alloys may exaggerate inflammatory responses in adjacent periodontal tissues.

Pulmonary infiltration of differentiating leukaemic cells is a ke

Pulmonary infiltration of differentiating leukaemic cells is a key event in the development of DS. Several mediators have been identified that may promote migration and extravasation of differentiating APL cells from the AG-014699 ic50 bloodstream into the tissue. Adhesion of APL cells to each other and to the endothelium is induced by upregulation of the expression of adhesion molecules and constitutively active beta 2-integrins

during differentiation therapy. The expression of chemokines and their receptors is significantly upregulated as well. Pulmonary chemokine production can trigger transendothelial migration of differentiating APL cells from the bloodstream into the underlying tissue (initiation phase of DS). Massive production of chemokines by infiltrated APL cells can further enhance transendothelial migration of differentiating APL cells, causing an uncontrollable hyperinflammatory reaction in the lung (aggravation phase), which NU7441 order is not efficiently switched-off by corticosteroids.”
“OBJECTIVE To investigate the determinants of urinary stone formation in patients with fat malabsorption, because, although the prevalence of urolithiasis is greater in patients with intestinal diseases, the pathogenetic

mechanisms and risk factors associated with urolithiasis in this population remain partially unsolved.\n\nMATERIALS AND METHODS The present study retrospectively analyzed the determinants of urolithiasis in 51 patients with fat malabsorption due to different intestinal diseases. Anthropometric, clinical, blood, 24-hour urinary parameters, and dietary intake were assessed.\n\nRESULTS The resection rate (ie, pancreatic and/or bowel resection) differed significantly between stone formers (SF; n = 10) and nonstone formers (NSF; n = 41; 70% vs 29%; P = .027). Urinary citrate was lower (1.606 +/- 1.824 vs 3.156 +/- 1.968 mmol/24 h; P = .027), while oxalate excretion (0.659 +/- 0.292 Salubrinal supplier vs 0.378 +/- 0.168 mmol/24 h; P = .002) and the relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate were greater in SF than NSF (8.16 +/- 4.61 vs 3.94 +/- 2.93; P = .003). Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but also

high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma beta-carotene, and vitamin E concentrations, were significantly diminished, whereas serum aspartate aminotransferase activity was significantly greater in SF compared with NSF. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed resection status as a major extrarenal risk factor for stone formation (odds ratio 5.639).\n\nCONCLUSION Increased urinary oxalate and decreased citrate excretion, probably resulting from pancreatic and/or bowel resection with mainly preserved colon, were identified as the most crucial urinary risk factors for stone formation in patients with fat malabsorption. The findings suggest that hyperoxaluria predominantly results from increased colonic permeability for oxalate due to disturbed bile acid metabolism.

“ObjectivesCurrently available vacuum devices used to assi

“ObjectivesCurrently available vacuum devices used to assist

women undergoing complicated labour are unsuitable for use in low-resource settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a new low-cost vacuum device, named Koohi Goth Vacuum Delivery System (KGVDS), designed for use in low-resource settings. MethodsA hospital-based, multicentre, prospective cohort study with no control group was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan. After training, CH5183284 in vivo KGVDS devices were made available for use by labour room staff at their discretion when instrumental delivery was indicated. Women to whom KGVDS was applied were followed from the start of labour until discharge. Feasibility was assessed in terms of successful expulsion of the foetal head following application of KGVDS and ease of use ratings. Safety was assessed by observing maternal and newborn post-delivery outcomes prior to discharge. ResultsKoohi Goth Vacuum Delivery System was applied

to 137 women requiring instrumental delivery, of whom 111 (81%; 95% CI=74-88%) successfully expelled the foetal head assisted by KGVDS and 103 (75%) stated that they would agree to use KGVDS again. There were no serious maternal or neonatal injuries or infections related to KGVDS use. SNX-5422 The mean score for ease of use’ given by doctors and midwives using the device was 8 of 10. ConclusionsKoohi Goth Vacuum Delivery System was feasible and safe to use for assisting complicated deliveries in low-resource hospitals in this initial evaluation. selleck Our results indicate that this new device may have the potential to improve birth outcomes in settings where most mortality occurs and that further evaluations should be conducted.”
“Under the increasing pressure of human activities, Hangzhou

Bay has become one of the most seriously polluted waters along China’s coast. Considering the excessive inorganic nitrogen detected in the bay, in this study, the impact of an effluent from a coastal industrial park on ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOMs) of the receiving area was interpreted for the first time by molecular technologies. Revealed by real-time PCR, the ratio of archaeal amoA/bacterial amoA ranged from 5.68 x 10(-6) to 4.79 x 10(-5) in the activated sludge from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and 0.54-3.44 in the sediments from the effluent receiving coastal area. Analyzed by clone and pyrosequencing libraries, genus Nitrosomonas was the predominant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), but no ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) was abundant enough for sequencing in the activated sludge from the WWTPs; genus Nitrosomonas and Nitrosopumilus were the dominant AOB and AOA, respectively, in the coastal sediments. The different abundance of AOA but similar structure of AOB between the WWTPs and nearby coastal area probably indicated an anthropogenic impact on the microbial ecology in Hangzhou Bay.

In our study, we included patients virologically suppressed ( big

In our study, we included patients virologically suppressed ( bigger than = 1 year), on antiretroviral therapy, without concomitant major neurocognitive confounders, receiving boosted lopinavir or darunavir as monotherapy (n=96) or as triple therapy with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (n=95). All patients underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery (14 neuropsychological measures, covering seven domains). Both groups were compared in average score distributions and rates of neuropsychological

deficits. Similar comparisons were conducted only for patients with neurocognitive impairment. In the adjusted analysis, we found only small differences between groups in the entire sample: better verbal learning (p=0.02; d=0.28) and verbal recall scores (p smaller than 4EGI-1 0.01; d=0.25) in patients on boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy and slightly better

motor skills with dominant hand (p=0.02; d=0.23) scores in patients on triple therapy. No greater proportion of deficits in the protease inhibitor monotherapy group was found in any neuropsychological measure. In neurocognitively impaired patients, we found similar outcomes in verbal learning, verbal recall, and motor skills with dominant hand but with larger effect sizes. Close similarities in the neurocognitive pattern between groups question the clinical relevance of the number of neuroactive Copanlisib inhibitor drugs included in the regimen. These results also suggest that peripheral viral load control may be a good indicator of brain protection.”
“Background: The use of acellular dermal matrices has become increasingly popular in immediate and delayed tissue expander/implant-based breast reconstruction. However, it is unclear whether their use is associated with increased postoperative complication rates. Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, the authors assessed baseline differences in demographics

and comorbidities with and without acellular dermal matrix and determined whether postoperative complication rates varied. Methods: AZD9291 Using the national surgical database (2005 to 2011), tissue expander/implant-based breast reconstruction cases were extracted using Current Procedural Terminology codes. Differences in preoperative demographics and comorbidities were assessed using chi-square and t test analysis using SPSS. The authors analyzed variations in complication rates and determined whether demographics and comorbidities affected outcomes using multivariate logistical analysis. A post hoc power study was calculated. Results: Of 19,100 cases, 3301 involved acellular dermal matrix use. Overall complication rates were not statistically significant (acellular dermal matrix, 5.3 percent; non-acellular dermal matrix, 4.9 percent; p = 0.396). Several risk factors were statistically significant associated factors of complications.

Only a few interventions had evolved to facilitate collective act

Only a few interventions had evolved to facilitate collective action through formal democratic structures (stage 3). These selleck inhibitor reported improved sexual negotiating power and community solidarity, and positive behavioural and clinical

outcomes. Sustainability of many projects was weakened by disunity within transient communities, variable commitment of programmers, low human resource capacity and general resource limitations. Conclusions: Most FSW SRH projects in Africa implemented participatory processes consistent with only the earliest stages of community empowerment, although isolated projects demonstrate proof of concept for successful empowerment interventions in African settings.”
“This study was designed to determine whether cyclic stretch induces a persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) phenotype of increased NADPH oxidase (Nox) 4 signaling in control pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC), and to identify the signal transduction molecules involved. To achieve this, PPHN was induced in lambs by antenatal ligation of the ductus arteriosus at 128 days gestation. After 9 days, lungs and PASMC were isolated from control (twin) and PPHN lambs. Control PASMC were exposed to cyclic stretch at 1 Hz and 15% elongation

for 24 h. Stretch-induced Nox4 expression was attenuated by inhibition of mitochondrial complex III and NF-kappa B, and stretch-induced protein thiol oxidation was attenuated by Nox4 small interfering RNA and complex III inhibition. NF-kappa selleckchem B activity was increased by stretch in a complex III-dependent fashion, and stretch-induced cyclin D1 expression was attenuated by complex III inhibition and Nox4 small interfering RNA. This is the first study to show that cyclic stretch increases Nox4 expression

via mitochondrial complex III-induced activation of NF-kappa B in fetal PASMC, resulting in ROS signaling and increased cyclin D1 expression. Targeting these signaling molecules may attenuate pulmonary vascular remodeling associated with PPHN.”
“Rationale: Elevated plasma triglyceride levels have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. Selisistat manufacturer Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) represents both an independent risk factor and a key regulatory factor of plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, elevated apoC-III levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. To date, no selective apoC-III therapeutic agent has been evaluated in the clinic.\n\nObjective: To test the hypothesis that selective inhibition of apoC-III with antisense drugs in preclinical models and in healthy volunteers would reduce plasma apoC-III and triglyceride levels.

“Cancer risk is modulated by gene-environment interactions

“Cancer risk is modulated by gene-environment interactions between toxic exposure and genetic variation in carcinogen metabolism. Our objective was to assess interactions between exposure to industrial pollutants and polymorphisms affecting cytochrome P450s (CYP1A1 and CYP2E1) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTP1 and GSTT) in childhood acute

leukemia (AL). A case-only design was conducted in 123 Chinese children with sporadic AL. Industrial plants in the vicinity were recorded and, if present, their size and proximity to the usual place of residence of AL children was evaluated. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed across the find more AL study group adjusting for age, gender, parental education. occupation and smoking, indoor and Outdoor pesticide use, presence of television sets, refrigerators, microwave ovens and furniture selleck compound material in children’s rooms, and electric transformers, power lines, and telecommunication transmitters within 500 m.

This analysis revealed an interaction between the GSTT null allele and industrial plants within 500 m of the residences of childhood AL patients (interaction odds ratio, COR=2.96, 95% CI: 1.09-8.01). Furthermore, the COR for the interaction between GSTT null and industrial plants within 50 in was 5.99 (95% Cl: 1.41-25.45). Our results suggest an association between proximity to industrial plants and the GSTT null allele in patients with childhood AL. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The C-repeat binding factor/dehydration responsive element binding factor 1 (CBF/DREB1) is a critical regulator MK-8931 of the development of tolerance to abiotic stress in plants. Here we report the cloning of the homologous gene, VviDREB1, from a central arctic plant, the cowberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., using rapid amplification of cDNA ends and genome walking techniques. The cDNA and genomic DNA are 887 and 3790

bp long, respectively. Alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that VviDREB1 should be classified into the A-1 group of the DREB subfamily. The 1522-bp-long promoter contains putative cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding motifs, including elements predicted to respond to phytohormones, abiotic stress, and light. The deduced amino acid sequence of the VviDREB1 cDNA contains a predicted DNA-binding domain with a three-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet and an alpha-helix, similar to that of the Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene-responsive-element-binding factor AtERF1, suggesting that VviDREB1 might bind to the dehydration responsive and ethylene responsive element. The expression of VviDREB1 was mainly localized to the nuclei of onion epidermal cells. Importantly, VviDREB1 expression in the cowberry was up-regulated by cold, high-salt, and abscisic acid treatment. Our findings may provide a novel basis for further studies of the acclimation and tolerance of cowberry to abiotic stresses.