Anakinra produced a nonsignificant (P = 0 11) reduction in diseas

Anakinra produced a nonsignificant (P = 0.11) reduction in disease flares compared with placebo. When normalized to 1 mg/kg dose, anakinra plasma concentrations were similar to values in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These results indicate that anakinra 1 mg/kg once daily (a parts per thousand ON-01910 currency sign100 mg/day) is safe and well tolerated in patients with JRA.”
“Background: Although mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) have shown therapeutic promise after myocardial infarction (MI), the impact of cell dose and timing of intervention remains uncertain. We

compared immediate and deferred administration of 2 doses of MSC in a rat model of MI.

Methods and Results: Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Allogeneic prospectively isolated MSC (“”low”" dose 1 x 10(6) or “”high”" dose 2 x 10(6) cells) were delivered by transepicardial injection immediately after MI (“”early-low,”" BEZ235 datasheet “”early-high”"), or 1 week later (“”late-low,”" “”late-high”"). Control subjects received cryopreservant solution alone. Left ventricular dimensions and ejection fraction (EF) were assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance. All 4 MSC-treatment cohorts demonstrated higher EF than control animals 4 weeks after MI (P values <.01 to <.0001), with function most preserved in the early-high group (absolute reduction in EF from baseline: control

39.1 +/- 1.7%, early-low 26.5 +/- 3.2%, early-high 7.9 +/- 2.6%, late-low 19.6 +/- 3.5%, late-high 17.9 +/- 4.0%). Cell treatment also attenuated left ventricular dilatation and fibrosis and augmented left ventricular mass, systolic wall thickening (SWT), and microvascular density. Although early intervention selectively increased SWT and vascular PF-6463922 purchase density

in the infarct territory, delayed treatment caused greater benefit in remote (noninfarct) myocardium. All outcomes demonstrated dose dependence for early MSC treatment, but not for later cell administration.

Conclusions: The nature and magnitude of benefit from MSC after acute MI is strongly influenced by timing of cell delivery, with dose dependence most evident for early intervention. These novel insights have potential implications for cell therapy after MI in human patients.”
“The influence of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber and oil palm empty fruit bunches grafted with poly(methyl methacrylate) (OPEFB-g-PMMA) on the tensile properties of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was investigated. The OPEFB-g-PMMA fiber was first prepared with the optimum conditions for the grafting reaction, which were determined in our previous study. To produce composites, the PVC resin, OPEFB-g-PMMA fiber or ungrafted OPEFB fiber, and other additives were first dry-blended with a laboratory blender before being milled into sheets on a two-roll mill. Test specimens were then hot-pressed, and then the tensile properties were determined.

G196S missense mutation No AR gene mutation was detected In con

G196S missense mutation. No AR gene mutation was detected. In conclusion, our study suggests that p.R246Q mutation is common amongst patients with SRD5A2 gene defect from the Northern states of India. Also, it records a novel deletion in exon 1 of SRD5A2 gene in a patient with severe hypospadias.”
“Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) have voluntarily

formed transnational political groups and invariably follow the voting instructions of these groups. This GSK1838705A in vivo is intriguing as there are few obvious incentives for doing so. Unlike national parties, for example, the political groups in the European Parliament are not punished by the electorate if they are divided on key issues, as citizens know very little about what goes on inside the European Parliament. This paper pieces together an explanation of why the European political groups exist and why they have become so powerful by looking at the determinants of group cohesion and by undertaking a spatial analysis

of voting in the European Parliament. MEPs who share preferences on a range of issues on the European Union policy agenda have an incentive to establish a division-of-labour contract and to share the costs of collecting information. Once internal party policy specialization and agenda setting has been established, MEPs have incentives to follow the voting MCC950 mechanism of action instructions of their group owing to the advantages of cohesion in a context of repeated voting.”

Non-adherence to immunosuppressive medication is strongly associated with poor outcomes. Identifying the factors influencing it is a first step in developing adherence interventions. This study’s objective was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported and collaterally-reported non-adherence to immunosuppressives, and, based on the Integrative Model of Behavioral

Prediction, to explore the association between non-adherence, intention to adhere, attitudes, norms and self-efficacy.


This cross-sectional study included a convenience sample of 114 renal transplant recipients in follow-up care, one to five yr post-transplant. GSK923295 ic50 Non-adherence was measured by self-reports and collateral reports. Factors of the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction were assessed using a self-report questionnaire.


Self-reports showed non-adherence of 23.7%; collateral reports showed 3.8%; and a combination of the two showed 26.4%. Logistic regression analysis showed that the attitude “”Not all immunosuppressive drugs are necessary to prevent rejection”" was less frequent in patients with higher intentions to adhere, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.05 (95% CI 0.01-0.50). The barrier of “”Forgetfulness/Interruption of daily routine”" was associated with non-adherence, with an OR of 3.74 (95% CI 1.55-9.03).


Forgetfulness is the most powerful barrier against adherence. Intention to adhere plays a minor role in non-adherence in renal transplant recipients.

Accurate, complete and accessible records on cause of death are n

Accurate, complete and accessible records on cause of death are necessary not just for brain research, but also for understanding risk factors that contribute to early death in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Various national health care and state developmental disability agency initiatives to reduce risk of mortality are described.”
“This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of bosentan in the treatment of severe pulmonary Selleck FG4592 hypertension in a young female patient with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. A 27-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of dyspnea. She

had not experienced any dyspnea before this period, and she was known to have MCTD. Laboratory tests showed positive results for antinuclear antibodies, anti-RNP antibodies, anticardiolipin

antibodies, beta(2)-glycoprotein I, and lupus anticoagulant. A complete echocardiographic study was performed demonstrating a pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PAPs) of 85 mmHg. Treatment with bosentan was initiated. After 12 days, the patient improved clinically. After 6 months of therapy, the follow-up echocardiography showed a near-normalization of PAPs. Patients who develop click here PAH secondary to an underlying systemic disease often have a poor survival rate. In this report, we describe a correlation between anticardiolipin antibodies and rapidly progressive pulmonary hypertension. Indeed, the patient in this study very likely improved secondary to the effect of bosentan which produces systemic and pulmonary vasodilatation PF-03084014 chemical structure associated with pulmonary vascular remodeling as well as possible antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory and antiatherothrombotic effects on cells of lungs damaged by an aPL-antibody mediated mechanism.”
“Charge separation mediated by linearly-polarized light in transparent insulators is analyzed

numerically by integrating the equations of motion of a bound charge. It is shown that large static and transient dipole moments can be induced by the magnetic component of light at nonrelativistic intensities regardless of whether the pumplight is coherent or incoherent. Quantitative estimates show that efficient conversion of optical beams to electrical power is possible in lossless dielectric media and that THz radiation can be generated in unbiased materials through the use of transverse optical magnetism. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3561505]“
“Fragile X syndrome is caused by CGG trinucleotide repeat expansion within the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene, when repeat number exceeds 200. The typical psychiatric profile of fragile X syndrome patients includes cognitive and behavioral deficits, psychiatric comorbidity, and autistic characteristics.

001) LVEDV remained unchanged (p=0 81) and LVESV decreased with

001). LVEDV remained unchanged (p=0.81) and LVESV decreased with -9 +/- 18% (p<0.05) causing LVSV to increase with 8 +/- 3% (p<0.05). RVEDV and RVESV decreased by -7 +/- 10% and -24 +/- 14% respectively,

(p<0.001) and RVSV increased 5 +/- 17% during exercise although not statistically significant (p=0.18). Longitudinal contribution to RVSV decreased during exercise by -6 +/- 15% (p<0.05) but was unchanged for LVSV (p=0.74). THV decreased during exercise by -4 +/- 1%, (p<0.01) and total heart volume variation (THVV) increased during exercise from 5.9 +/- 0.5% to 9.7 +/- 0.6% (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Cardiac volumes and function are significantly GDC-0068 inhibitor altered during supine physical exercise. THV becomes significantly smaller due to decreases in RVEDV whilst LVEDV remains unchanged. THVV and consequently radial pumping increases during exercise which may improve diastolic suction during the rapid filling phase.”
“Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of defective placental adhesion (DPA) in voluntary termination of second-trimester pregnancy and the risk of DPA recurrence in subsequent AZD9291 pregnancies.

Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients who underwent voluntary second-trimester pregnancy termination in the period between January 2000 and December 2009. In all cases, the fetus and the placenta were submitted

to pathological examination accordingly to our clinical protocol.

Results. Four

hundred twenty-seven cases of voluntary termination of second-trimester click here pregnancy were included in the study. Ten histologically confirmed cases of placenta accreta were observed (2.3%). Two patients with histological diagnosis of placenta accreta were lost at follow-up. Among the eight remaining patients, six had further pregnancies. Overall, nine pregnancies were recorded, and placenta accreta recurred in one patient.

Conclusions. This study shows that DPA occurs in 2.3% of second-trimester voluntary termination of pregnancy; these patients should have an accurate ultrasound examination of the placenta in subsequent pregnancies.”
“BACKGROUND: Nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNx) and cup-stacked-type carbon nanofibres (CST) were modified with nitric acid, at 85 degrees C, for 1-3 h to enhance their cation adsorption capacity, and were used for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions. These carbon nanostructures were characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR, BET surface area, TGA and acid/base titrations. In addition, cadmium adsorption experiments were carried out at different pH values and constant temperature.

RESULTS: EDX and FTIR revealed a 0.4 times increase in oxygen content after acid treatment, which was reflected in an increment of up to 1.93 mmol g(-1) of acid sites and in a shift of about two units of the zero point charge to lower pH values. The BET surface area, in general, decreased as the oxidation time increased.

The aim of the present study was to verify the safety and efficac

The aim of the present study was to verify the safety and efficacy of play therapy plus toilet training in a small sample of prepubertal children affected by FNRFS.

Materials and methods: Twenty-six patients (group 1; 16 males, mean age of 5.92 +/- 0.84 years) underwent a psychomotor approach therapy program in association with toilet training for 6

months, and the other 26 subjects (group 2; 17 males, mean age of 5.76 +/- 0.69) underwent the sole toilet training program for 6 months. During the observational time period (T0) and after 6 months (T1) of both treatments, the patients were evaluated for FNRFS frequency and for the behavioral assessment.

Results: selleck products At T0, the FNRFS mean frequency per month for group 1 was 20.115 episodes/month (standard deviation [SD] +/- 3.024) and for group 2 was selleck screening library 20.423 (SD +/- 1.879) (P = 0.661). At T1 the mean frequency per month was 6.461 (SD +/- 1.333) episodes/month and 12.038 (SD +/- 1.341), respectively (P < 0.001). Moreover, the delta percent average of the frequency between T0 and T1 was 67.121 +/- 8.527 for group 1 and 40.518 +/- 9.259 for group 2 (P < 0.001). At

T1, a significant improvement in scores on the behavioral scale was identified.

Conclusion: Our preliminary results show the importance of a multidisciplinary approach, and suggest the positive effect of an additional psychomotor approach, as this holds a new and interesting rehabilitative purpose for children in check details a toilet training program, even if further research

is necessary.”
“This paper proposes a technique for simultaneously monitoring the thickness of a SiO2 thin film and the temperature of a Si substrate. This technique uses low-coherence interferometry and has the potential to be used for online monitoring of semiconductor manufacturing processes. In low-coherence interferometry, when the optical path length of a layer is shorter than the coherence length of the light source, the two interference at the top and bottom interfaces of the layer overlap each other. In this case the detected peak position of the interference is shifted from the actual interface, resulting in an error in the temperature measurement, since the temperature is derived from the optical path length of the layer. To improve the accuracy of the temperature measurement, the effect of the overlapping interference was compensated by measuring the SiO2 thickness. The thickness of the Si substrate was 750 mu m and the thickness of the SiO2 film was varied between 0 and 2 mu m. The SiO2 thickness, which is shorter than the coherence length of the light source, was measured from the ratio of interference intensities of two superluminescent diodes (wavelengths: 1.55 and 1.31 mu m). The measured ratio corresponded well with the theoretical one for SiO2 film thicknesses between 0 and 2 mu m, and the error was less than 25 nm. The Si temperature was measured from the optical path length.

Analysis of the subgroup with exceptionally large differences of

Analysis of the subgroup with exceptionally large differences of basal FSH concentration yielded similar results. Neither high nor low basal serum FSH values were associated with IVF outcome in patients with reduced ovarian reserve and previously determined high basal FSH concentrations. Ovarian stimulation need not be delayed until FSH declines. (C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The objective of this study was to compare the post-warming survival rates of biopsied and non-biopsied day-3 embryos vitrified on day 4 and to evaluate the clinical outcomes of following transfers. This study included 18 preimplantation genetic diagnosis Ispinesib in vivo (PGD) patients and

18 non-PGD patients treated between January 2005 and January 2009 who had not achieved live births during their fresh embryo-transfer cycles and whose surplus embryos were cryopreserved on day 4. The embryo survival rate after warming in the PGD and non-PGD groups was similar (53/59, 89.8% versus 55/64, 85.9%, respectively; difference of 3.9% 95% CI -7.3 to 13.4). Vitrified embryo-transfer

cycles yielded no significant differences between PGD and non-PGD groups in implantation rates (12/46, 26.1% versus 9/47, 19.1%, respectively; difference of 6.9%, 95% CI -9.7 to 22.2), clinical pregnancy rates (11/18, 61.1% versus 9/18, 50%, respectively; difference of 11.1%, 95% CI -20.6 to 40.6) and live birth rates (9/18, 50% versus 6/18, 33.3%, respectively; difference of 16.7%, 95% CI -15.1 to 44.8). These results showed that, in PGD cycles, embryos can be vitrified effectively on day 4 after biopsy on day check details 3. (C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate

microalbuminuria at mid-pregnancy, using the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), as a predictor of pre-eclampsia. Material and Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out on 144 normotensive women, aged < 35 years, body mass index < 25 kg/m2, and live singleton pregnancy between 24 and 28 weeks. In all, the ACR was measured in spot random urine samples. Normoalbuminuria was an ACR of <30 mg/g, whereas microalbuminuria was an ML323 nmr ACR of 30299 mg/g creatinine. All were followed till delivery. Primary outcome was the development of pre-eclampsia. The secondary outcome measures were preterm births and neonatal birthweight. Statistical analysis was done with Fisher’s exact and t-tests. Results: Of all, 77.1% (111/144) had normoalbuminuria and 22.9% (33/144) had microalbuminuria. Of 33 microalbuminuric women, the mean blood pressure was significantly higher in those who subsequently developed pre-eclampsia (P < 0.001). The mean ACR (mg/g) in this cohort was 60.6 +/- 29.4. The mean ACR (mg/g) in women who subsequently developed pre-eclampsia was significantly higher than in women who remained normotensive (P = 0.003). Of 33 microalbuminuric women, 12 (36.

The kinetic model consisting of 76 ordinary differential equation

The kinetic model consisting of 76 ordinary differential equations (76 species, 57 reactions, 105 kinetic parameters) predicted the clotting find more of resting and convulxin-activated human blood as well as predicted T-i of human blood under 50

different initial conditions that titrated increasing levels of TF, Xa, Va, XIa, IXa, and VIIa. Experiments with combined anti-XI and anti-XII antibodies prevented thrombin production, demonstrating that a leak of XIIa past saturating amounts of CTI (and not “”blood-borne TF” alone) was responsible for in vitro initiation without added TF. Clotting was not blocked by antibodies used individually against TF, VII/VIIa, P-selectin, GPIb, protein disulfide isomerase, cathepsin G, nor blocked by the ribosome inhibitor puromycin, the Clk1 kinase inhibitor Tg003, or inhibited VIIa (VIIai). This is the first model to predict the observed behavior of CTI-treated human blood, either resting or stimulated with platelet activators. CTI-treated human blood will clot in vitro due to the combined activity of XIIa and XIa, a process enhanced by platelet activators and which proceeds in the absence of any LCL161 evidence for kinetically significant blood borne tissue

“BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation carries a guarded prognosis and is burdened by short-term and long-term complications that affect the airway, lungs, and vasculature. In this

pilot study we aimed to assess the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 8 pediatric patients after lung transplantation.

METHODS: selleck kinase inhibitor The 8 patients in the study were aged between 9 and 17 years and were clinically stable. The scan protocol included MR angiography, phase contrast imaging of the pulmonary arteries and veins, ventricular volumetry, lung parenchyma imaging, and lung volumetry.

RESULTS: This protocol was successfully done in all patients. Lung volumes measured by MRI correlated well with those by body plethysmography (r = 0.83, p = 0.01). Angiography detected caliber differences between the donor and recipient pulmonary arteries in 5 patients. One patient had hemodynamically relevant pulmonary vein stenosis, as evidenced by MR angiography, a reduction in ipsilateral flow, and an abnormal pulmonary venous flow profile. Three patients had mild left (2 patients) or right (1 patient) ventricular systolic dysfunction. One patient had left main bronchus compression, and 3 patients showed varying degrees of pleural thickening.

CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary experience suggests that cardiopulmonary MRI is feasible in pediatric lung transplant recipients and that it provides clinically useful information, especially on the vascular and bronchial anastomoses.


“The Kinase Inhibitor Library ic50 temporal and stationary behavior of protein modification cascades has been extensively studied, yet little is known about the spatial aspects of signal propagation. We have previously shown that the spatial separation of opposing enzymes, such as a kinase and a phosphatase, creates signaling activity gradients. Here we show under what conditions signals stall in the space or robustly propagate through spatially distributed signaling cascades. Robust signal propagation

results in activity gradients with long plateaus, which abruptly decay at successive spatial locations. We derive an approximate analytical solution that relates the maximal amplitude and propagation length of each activation profile with the cascade level, protein diffusivity, and the ratio of the opposing enzyme activities. The control of the spatial signal propagation appears to be very different from the control of transient temporal responses for spatially homogenous cascades. For spatially distributed cascades where activating and deactivating

enzymes operate far from saturation, the ratio of the opposing enzyme activities is shown to be a key parameter controlling signal propagation. The signaling gradients LGX818 inhibitor characteristic for robust signal propagation exemplify a pattern formation mechanism that generates precise spatial guidance for multiple cellular processes and conveys information about the cell size to the nucleus.”
“Purpose: Cancer related fatigue (CRF) is a common problem for cancer patients across diagnoses during chemotherapy and is associated with physical inactivity, Selleck AZD8055 lower functional level and lack of energy. Few RCT exercise intervention studies have included cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether a six-week supervised multimodal exercise intervention, adjunct to chemotherapy and standard care, can reduce the patient’s CRF level.

Methods: Data is based on analyses of a prospective randomised

controlled trial ‘The Body & Cancer Trial’. 213 cancer patients with different diagnoses were randomised into an intervention group or wait-list control group. The primary outcome, Fatigue score (CRF), was evaluated by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anaemia Questionnaire (FACT-An-) (FACT-G score & FACT-An Anemia subscale). Intervention: Supervised exercise, comprising high-intensity cardiovascular and heavy resistance training, relaxation- and body awareness training and massage, 9 h weekly for 6 weeks.

Results: CRF was significantly reduced in the intervention group, corresponding to a Fatigue score reduction of 3.04 (effect size of 0.44, 95% Cl 0.17-0.72) (P = .002), the FACT-An score by 5.40 (P = .015), the FACT-An Toi score by 5.22 (P = .009) and the Anaemia-ANS by 3.76 (P =.002).

However, LCNEC in the case was resistant to the chemotherapy In

However, LCNEC in the case was resistant to the chemotherapy. In our review of published works, ovarian cancer cases with LCNEC show poor prognoses regardless of adjuvant chemotherapy following complete resection. Median overall survival was 10months

in stage I cases. Development of chemotherapy Rigosertib sensitive for LCNEC is needed.”
“Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is composed of a diverse spectrum of hematopoietic stem cell malignancies characterized by ineffective blood cell production. Many MDS patients are dependent on red blood cell (RBC) transfusions for symptomatic management of refractory anemia. Iron overload ensues when the iron acquired from transfused RBCs exceeds body storage capacity, thereby raising the risk for end organ damage. This is of GW-572016 greatest concern in patients with lower-risk MDS whose expected survival is measured in years. Transfusion dependence is associated with shorter survival and an increased risk for progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in transfusion-dependent patients. Application of recent advances in the treatment of MDS can reduce or eliminate the need for transfusions, thus minimizing the risk of iron overload. Case control studies, prospective surveys, and phase II studies indicate that iron chelation therapy

reduces iron load as measured by changes in serum ferritin and may prolong overall survival. Iron chelation strategies include oral agents such as deferasirox (Exjade (R), Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp, East Hanover, NJ), deferiprone (Ferriprox (R), Apotex Europe BV, Leiden, the Netherlands) and, for those patients who are intolerant of or for whom oral therapy is ineffective, parenteral

administration of deferoxamine (Desferal (R), Novartis). This review presents the data related to iron overload in MDS, including its prevalence, diagnosis, clinical impact, and management.”
“Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant impacting even remote environments. In alpine watersheds, glacial meltwater is a source of Hg, which accumulated in glaciers during the 1960-1980 cooling cycle. The considerable variation observed for Hg exposure of alpine animals in proximal watersheds could result from differences among those watersheds in Hg loading from glacial meltwater. Alternatively, variation may be check details the result of hydrology, atmospheric Hg deposition patterns, or food web characteristics. To examine those possibilities, we measured Hg in ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), apex predators in 15 watersheds in western Canada. Mercury levels in feathers of nestlings increased with increasing modeled atmospheric deposition rates and decreased with lake size. In eggs mercury decreased with delta C-13, an indicator of food web structure, and with pH and elevation. Thus, Hg levels in chicks were strongly associated with local patterns relevant when the chicks were growing (e.g.

The assessment of each step is based on its level of transparency

The assessment of each step is based on its level of transparency and efficiency. A comparative view on operating costing and the English costing scheme is given. Results: Advantages of the scheme are low participation hurdles, low calculation AZD7762 purchase effort for G-DRG calculation participants, highly differentiated cost-center/cost category separation, and advanced patient-based resource allocation. The exclusion of relevant capital costs, nontransparent resource allocation, and unclear capital cost modules, limit the managerial relevance and transparency of the capital costing scheme. Conclusions: The scheme generates the

technical premises for a change from dual financing by insurances (operating costs) and state (capital costs) to a single financing source. The new capital costing scheme will intensify the discussion on how to solve the current investment backlog in Germany and can assist regulators in other countries with the introduction of accurate capital costing. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Although SB203580 cost selenium (Se) is not an essential element in plants, Se metabolism in plants is remarkable, mainly for the purpose of phytoremediation and nutritional supplementation of Se. Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) is known as an Se accumulator. In addition to Indian mustard, unique Brassicaceae plants are consumed in Japan. Brassica rapa var. hakabura,

commonly known as nozawana, and Brassica rapa var. peruviridis, commonly known as komatsuna, are typical Brassicaceae plants. In this study, we evaluated the Se-accumulating ability of these unique Brassicaceae plants. There were no significant differences in the Se concentrations in the roots and the leaves of the three Brassicaceae plants. However, nozawana most efficiently accumulated Se among the three Brassicaceae plants because it showed the most rapid growth, resulting in the highest biomass. Speciation

revealed that the Se species accumulated in the three plants were identical. In addition, nozawana contained easily extractable essential selleck products minerals, such as iron, copper, and zinc. Potentialities of nozawana as a source of minerals and the phytoremediation of soil and water contaminated with Se were discussed.”
“Objective: The pathophysiology of migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS) seems to involve inherited mechanism and dysfunction of the dopaminergic system. Previous articles have shown that the frequency of RLS is higher in migraine patients than in controls. We conducted a study to evaluate comorbidities, medication used and depressive symptoms that can explain the relation between migraine and RLS. Methods: A case-control study was performed in which patients with migraine (n=72) and a control group without migraine (n=72) were interviewed. Data including RLS diagnosis, depressive symptoms, comorbidities and drugs used were evaluated. Results: There was a significant association between migraine and RLS (p=0.