To conclude, the complementary interpretation of the diversity da

To conclude, the complementary interpretation of the diversity data with the reconstruction of the dominant metabolic processes allowed us (i) to monitor the dynamic response of

planktonic bacterial taxa to a coastal phytoplankton bloom down to genus level and (ii) to elucidate the adaptive and distinct response to successive ecological niches that allowed prokaryotic planktonic species to coexist in great detail. The following are the supplementary data related to this article. Supplementary Table S1.   Overview of the raw sequencing data. We acknowledge HSP inhibitor Christine Klockow, Jack A. Gilbert (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA), Bernhard M. Fuchs (Max Planck Institute, Bremen, Germany), G. Gerdts from the Alfred Wegner Institute–Biologische Anstalt Helgoland (Helgoland, Germany) and

Jörg Peplies (Ribocon) for support and critical discussion of this work, E. Karamehmedovic and M. Meiners for helping with the laboratory work, and Johannes Werner (Max Planck Institute, Bremen, Germany) for submission of the sequencing data. Funding This work was supported by the Max Planck Society the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (grant number 03F0480D) and the Micro B3 project. The Micro B3 project is funded from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (Joint Call OCEAN.2011‐2: Marine microbial Alpelisib molecular weight diversity – new insights into marine ecosystems functioning and its biotechnological potential) under the grant agreement no 287589. “
“In molluscs the mantle epithelium is the tissue responsible for shell formation. The mantle creates the shell indirectly, with the mantle

epithelium not Farnesyltransferase touching the surface of calcification. Instead, the organic material (organic matrix) secreted by the mantle tissue is thought to be the regulator of shell calcification (Fougerouse et al., 2008). A number of proteins have been isolated from the organic matrix using biochemical and molecular approaches and their functions have been discussed based on their primary and predicted secondary structures, expression patterns and results from in vitro experiments (Miyamoto et al., 1996, Shen et al., 1997, Sudo et al., 1997, Samata et al., 1999, Kono et al., 2000, Mann et al., 2000, Miyashita et al., 2000, Weiss et al., 2001, Zhang et al., 2003, Tsukamoto et al., 2004 and Gotliv et al., 2005). It is generally conceived that due to a pearl having the same nacre constitution as the inside of a pearl oyster shell and because a cultured pearl is produced by surgical implantation of a mantle allograft from a donor oyster, that the shell matrix proteins responsible for nacreous shell formation produced by the mantle are also responsible for pearl formation (Farn, 1986). The relative genetic contribution from the donor and host oyster to nacre secretion, however, has not been defined.

Papers of particular interest, published within the period of

Papers of particular interest, published within the period of

review, have been highlighted as: • of special interest We would like to thank Sam Corless for crucial comments on the manuscript and Jon Baxter for his helpful insights into DNA supercoiling in transcription and Apoptosis inhibitor replication. Research described in this review was supported by the Wellcome Trust and NG is now funded by the UK Medical Research Council. “
“Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 2014, 25:22–29 This review comes from a themed issue on Genome architecture and expression Edited by Victor Corces and David L Levens For a complete overview see the Issue and the Editorial Available online 31st December

2013 0959-437X/$ – see front matter, © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The self-assembly of guanylic acid derivatives has been known for more than a century [1] and the structural basis for this phenomenon was elucidated in the 1960s [2]. Guanine-tetrad formation Fluorouracil chemical structure (Figure 1a) drives the assembly of four-stranded helixes by guanine-rich oligonucleotides (G-quadruplexes, Figure 1b). Seminal studies by Sen and Gilbert, and by others [3, 4, 5, 6 and 7], showed that these cation-dependent, G-quadruplex structures are thermodynamically stable under physiological conditions, and subsequently such structures were proposed to be involved in telomere association, recombination and replication. Biophysical methods have provided extensive in vitro data on the structure(s) and thermodynamics of DNA G-quadruplexes formed from oligonucleotides derived from genomic sequences that have included the human telomere ( Figure 1c) [ 8] and promoter regions of oncogenes (e.g. MYC) [ 9]. Structural data

has facilitated the design and synthesis of G-quadruplex-specific small molecules [ 10] (see Figure 1d for example of G-quadruplex ligands), several of which trigger cellular mechanisms proposed to be linked with G-quadruplexes. Notable examples of chemical biological studies include the small molecule inhibition of telomerase action via G-quadruplex stabilization Phospholipase D1 [ 11], and also transcriptional suppression of MYC by a G-quadruplex ligand [ 12]. There are indeed many more examples in the literature of cell-based studies that provide supportive correlations. However, some such studies have not addressed whether the key G-quadruplex in question actually exists in the genomic DNA and if so whether it is responsible for causation of the observed effects. Biophysical studies on G-quadruplex structures formed by oligonucleotides in vitro have allowed the formulation of quadruplex-prediction algorithms on the basis of sequence motifs such as G≥3NXG≥3NXG≥3NXG≥3.

The right hemisphere superiority was observed for both positively

The right hemisphere superiority was observed for both positively and negatively valenced words. This better overall performance of the right hemisphere favours the so called ‘right hemisphere hypothesis’ (Borod et al., 1998) over the rival ‘valence hypothesis’, which proposes that the right hemisphere is specialised solely for negative emotions and that positive emotions are processed in the left cerebral hemisphere (Reuter-Lorenz & Davidson, 1981). Premkumar and collaborators (2011) go still further in the study of emotional processing by identifying activational differences between low and high schizotypy in the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, right superior frontal gyrus, and left ventral prefrontal

cortex when focusing on social rejection as a particular emotion. However, the present study had a couple of potential limitations that should be noted in generalising from its findings. First, selleckchem the dichotic listening paradigm used to test hemispheric lateralisation is not nearly as reliable as the Wada test (Woermann et al., 2003), which is taken to be the “gold standard” technique for language lateralisation. However, the Wada test (intracarotid amobarbital hemispheric sedation) has the disadvantage of its invasiveness and the possibility of clinical complications. Additionally, the SPQ range of the sample used in this study, although similar to previous

studies (e.g., Langdon & Coltheart, 2004), was relatively low compared to the maximum SPQ range indicated by Raine (1991). This highlights the importance of conducting further Fossariinae research in a more representative community sample. Taken as a whole, the current findings provide support for the notion that

schizotypal personality symptoms are distributed, to varying degrees, throughout the general population of healthy individuals. It can be confirmed that, at a non-clinical level, the presence of these symptoms do not give rise to the atypical lateralisation of language and emotion that is frequently observed within SPD and schizophrenia. Whilst atypical laterality is not a dominant feature of this population, disturbances in emotion recognition do manifest at the high end of the sub-clinical level of the schizotypal personality spectrum. This denotes that overlapping characteristics with the clinical sphere do exist. As the present study provided the first examination into the lateralisation of emotional prosody within this population, it may shed additional light on previous research by confirming that findings of impairments in emotion recognition abilities are unlikely to be a consequence of a right hemisphere abnormality. This work was supported by The Wellcome Trust (Ref: 089919). “
“Aversive events during pregnancy impair fetal development and produce short- and long-term alterations (Barbazanges et al., 1996, Burlet et al., 2005, Drago et al., 1999, Emack et al.

25 Ombitasvir (ABT-267) is an HCV NS5A inhibitor dosed once daily

25 Ombitasvir (ABT-267) is an HCV NS5A inhibitor dosed once daily.26 and 27 ABT-450 is an HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor, identified by AbbVie and Enanta as a lead

compound for clinical development. ABT-450 is co-dosed with low-dose ritonavir, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, to achieve therapeutic exposures at lower doses and at once daily dosing frequency (the combination is denoted ABT-450/r).27 Ombitasvir has picomolar potency and ABT-450 has nanomolar potency against HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 3 in vitro. Phase 2 and 3 studies have demonstrated high SVR rates and tolerability of combination regimens that include ABT-450/r and ombitasvir with or without ribavirin in genotype 1-infected patients. 17, 18, 21, 28, 29, 30 and 31 In this exploratory phase 2 study, we assessed the safety and efficacy of pegIFN-free regimens of ombitasvir and ABT-450/r with or without RBV in treatment-naïve adults with chronic HCV genotype 1, 2, or 3 infection. This was an open-label, sequential arm, multicenter, combination treatment phase

2 study. Patients were screened and enrolled at 15 sites in the United States from September 2011 to March 2012. Treatment-naïve adults age 18–65 years (inclusive) with a BMI ≥18 and <35 kg/m2 and general good health, who were chronically infected with HCV genotype 1, 2, or 3 without evidence of cirrhosis, were eligible. Absence of cirrhosis was based on documented buy Ribociclib results of a FibroTest score of ≤0.72 and Aspartate Aminotransferase to Platelet Ratio ≤2, or Fibroscan result of <9.6 kPa at screening, or a liver biopsy within the last 36 months. Cohorts enrolling HCV genotype 1-infected patients were required to include at least 5 patients with HCV subgenotype

1a infection and at least 2 patients with HCV subgenotype 1b infection. Cohorts enrolling Cepharanthine HCV genotype 2-infected patients were required to include at least 2 patients with HCV subgenotype 2a infection and at least 5 patients with HCV subgenotype 2b infection. Patients were excluded if they had HIV or hepatitis B co-infection, or if they previously used any investigational or commercially available anti-HCV agents. The study was performed in accordance with Good Clinical Practice guidelines and the Declaration of Helsinki, and was approved by the relevant institutional review boards and regulatory agencies. All patients provided written informed consent. Eligible patients received either ombitasvir and ABT-450/r with RBV (Arm 1) or ombitasvir and ABT-450/r without RBV (Arm 2) for 12 weeks. Each arm included a cohort of genotype 1-infected patients, a cohort of genotype 2-infected patients, and a cohort of genotype 3-infected patients. Arms were enrolled sequentially. Once a cohort within Arm 1 was fully enrolled, the cohort of the same genotype in Arm 2 began enrolling patients. Patients received ombitasvir 25 mg once daily and ABT-450/r 200/100 mg once daily. RBV dosing was weight-based (1000 mg or 1200 mg total daily divided into 2 daily doses).

Also, AKs has a very important biotechnological potential as it c

Also, AKs has a very important biotechnological potential as it can limit the content of an essential amino acid (lysine) in cereals [22]. Sequence analysis of CaAK suggests that it comprised of two domains, namely, N-terminal conserved amino acid kinase domain (Pfam PF00696) considered as catalytic domain indicates that CaAK belongs to amino

acid kinase family. This domain is further divided into two lobes, the N-lobe making up the Asp-binding site and the C-lobe providing a nucleotide-binding pocket for ATP. A second domain of CaAK represents a C-terminal regulatory domain that includes two Navitoclax research buy small domains belonging to the ACT domain family (Pfam PF01842). ACT domains are ligand-binding domains that are found in a wide variety of regulated proteins [23] and [24]. The structural and biochemical studies of AKs from different organisms highlighted the molecular basis of the diversity of allosteric regulation and the many structural faces of AKs sensitive to the concerted learn more inhibition [19] and [25]. Based on

the crystallographic structures AKs are categorized into three classes. Class I contains the homo-dimeric enzymes from E.coli, Methanococcus jannaschii and A. thaliana with one catalytic domain and two ACT domains per monomer [26], [27] and [28]. The dimerization is mediated by the association of the ACT domains. Class II contains to the hetero-tetrameric enzyme from C.glutamicum with one catalytic domain and two ACT domains per α-subunit and two ACT domains per β-subunit [29]. The oligomerization involves strong association of the catalytic domain of the α-subunits and the interaction of the ACT domains of α and β-subunits. Class III contains the homo-dimeric enzyme from Synechocystis with one catalytic domain and four ACT domains per monomer [9]. In this case, dimerization only involves the catalytic domain. However, there are many AKs from whole genomic database,

but minimal crystallographic and biochemical data is available to demonstrate the regulatory principles Avelestat (AZD9668) of structural allostery. Here we report the crystallographic analysis of AK from C. acetobutylicum to a resolution of 3.0 Å in order to define the relationship between the assembly of AKs and the allosteric mechanism of AK, which may be relevant for industrial uses such as the development of effective lysine production strain. The structure of CaAK was determined to 3 Å resolution by single wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P21 and forming a total of 576 kDa protein (12 monomers in asymmetric unit with each 48 kDa) which posed the problem of solving the constellation of 108 Se atoms (9 SeMet residues/monomer) in the asymmetric unit.

Social exploration is determined as the amount of time spent inve

Social exploration is determined as the amount of time spent investigating the juvenile (sniffing, near the juvenile) and is reported as percentage of baseline. Animals were euthanized via CO2 asphyxiation 24 hours after treatment, perfused with sterile ice-cold saline, and then the brain and liver tissues were dissected and flash frozen. All tissue samples were stored at −80°C until further processing for analysis. RNA was isolated using

E.Z.N.A. Total RNA kits according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Omega Biotek, Norcross, Georgia). Synthesis of cDNA was carried out using a high-capacity RT kit (Applied Biosystems, Grand Island, New York) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Real-time Stem Cell Compound Library price quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) selleck screening library was performed to detect changes in mRNA expression of ARE genes NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) (Mm.PT.56a.9609207) and heme oxygenase I (HMOX1) (Mm.PT.56a.9675808), and the transcription factor Nrf2 (Mm.PT.56a.29108649M). The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (Mm.PT.56a.41616450) was

used as a marker to detect if inflammatory cytokine production was reduced in animals fed the broccoli diet. The glial activation markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (Mm.PT.56a.6609337.q), CD11b (Mm.PT.56a.9189361), major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) (Mm.PT.56a.43429730), and CX3CR1 (Mm.PT.56a.17555544) were used to determine whether astrocyte and microglial activation were affected Vorinostat chemical structure by dietary intervention. All genes were analyzed using PrimeTime real-time quantitative RT-PCR Assays (Integrated DNA Technologies, Coralville, Iowa) and were compared with the housekeeping control gene GAPDH (Mm.PT.39.a.1)

using the 2−ΔΔCt calculation method as previously described [24]. Data are expressed as fold change versus control diet mice treated with saline. All data were analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS, Cary, North Carolina). Data were subjected to three-way analysis of variance for main effects of age, diet, and LPS, and all 2- and 3-way interactions. Where analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction, post hoc Student t test using Fisher least significant differences was used to determine mean separation. All data are expressed as means ± SEM. Antioxidant response element gene expression is elevated in glial cells treated with SFN, indicating that glia may be sensitive to the protective benefits of SFN [25], [26] and [27]. Because glial cells are also the predominant producers of proinflammatory mediators in brain, we measured expression of several markers of glial reactivity. Glial fibrillary acidic protein was elevated in brain of aged mice (P < .001). Interestingly, broccoli diet lowered expression of GFAP in aged mice (age × diet interaction; P < .05) ( Fig. 1).

Daily and annual estimates of photic depth were calculated as mea

Daily and annual estimates of photic depth were calculated as means of all grid points, and separately within each of five cross-shelf transects (coastal: 0–0.1 across the shelf, inner: 0.1–0.25, lagoon: 0.25–0.45, midshelf: 0.45–0.65, outer shelf: >0.65 across; Fig. 1). The distance of the boundaries between these arbitrary bands varied with latitude, approximating ∼8–13 km from the shore to the inshore, ∼27–43 km

from the inshore to the lagoon, ∼55–60 km from the lagoon to the midshelf, and ∼67–85 km from the midshelf to the outer shelf band. Annual means were calculated based on ‘water years’ (01 October to 30 September), accounting for the wet season in the GBR that extends from November to about April the following calendar year. The first set of analyses (Fig. 2) focused on annual values

(with annual values based on water years 2). Annual mean photic depth (calculated across the entire region) was correlated against the annual total buy Bortezomib Burdekin River freshwater discharge volume, total river loads of suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). The second set of analyses was based on daily values. Time series traces of photic depth and the environmental data were produced for initial exploration and to confirm the existence of cyclical (seasonal) patterns (Electronic Supplement, Fig. S1). Wind speed was highly correlated with wave height and wave frequency. Daily rainfall was highly correlated with the Decitabine cost Burdekin River discharges, and so were the discharges of the much smaller Houghton, Ross and Black Rivers. Only wave height, wave frequency and Burdekin River flow, which are the most direct predictors for water clarity, were therefore retained in the final model. Cross-correlation lags between daily photic depth and the main environmental drivers were calculated to determine

the potential scale and pattern of temporal offsets. These cross-correlations revealed that there was a substantial and blunt (prolonged) lag associated with Burdekin River discharge (Fig. 3), suggesting that any potential causal links between photic depth and river discharge were delayed and accumulative over prolonged periods rather than instantaneous pulses. Lags of the response in photic depth to the other environmental drivers were negligible. Next, to remove the effects of bathymetry, wave height, wave frequency and tidal range on photic depth, we fitted generalized additive mixed effects models (GAMMs; Wood, 2006), using the mgcv (Wood, 2006 and Wood, 2011) package in R 2.15.1 (R Development Core Team, 2013). GAMMs allow flexible modeling of non-linear relationships by incorporating penalized regression spline types of smoothing functions into the estimation process.

However, when the concentration was ⩽25 μg/ml the growth curves w

However, when the concentration was ⩽25 μg/ml the growth curves were similar to the non-frozen control. This was also reflected in the doubling times for the cells. Although reduced (by 22 ± 2%, p = 0.09) these two groups were not significantly different from the non-frozen control ( Fig. 6). In contrast, the cells frozen using Me2SO were found to have an abnormally high

rate of growth. This was also reflected in the doubling time for the cells (Fig. 6), which for this group was significantly different from the non-frozen control during the test period (reduced by 41 ± 4%, p = 0.004). To determine the cell cryosurvival, the post-thaw viability of the cells was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and PI staining (Fig. 7). The percentage of viable cells was significantly higher for the cells frozen using Me2SO (80 ± 3%) than for either treatment using trehalose with selleck chemical or without PP-50 (60 ± 2%, and 44 ± 3%, respectively). The addition of PP-50 at 25 μg/ml during the incubation step, significantly enhanced viability (by a factor of 37 ± 7%, p = 0.002). For all the treatment groups tested, the majority of the non-viable cells were found to be necrotic rather than apoptotic. Perhaps the two most important criteria with which different methods of cell

cryopreservation should be judged are; cryosurvival Ganetespib mouse and retention of normal cell processes. The latter is thought to be particularly Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II important for both research and therapeutic applications. Here, a Me2SO-free cryopreservation protocol, using trehalose delivery utilising PP-50, was developed and assessed. The cell line SAOS-2 was used as a model for nucleated, adherent human cells. Calcein, like trehalose, is thought to be impermeable to the cell membrane. Calcein has therefore been used in previous studies to assess the extent

of delivery of hydrophilic species into cells [10] and [11]. The degree of calcein uptake in the presence of the PP-50 was less than that previously reported for the related polymer PP-75 [10] and [11]. In part, this may be explained by the presence of trehalose in the incubation media in the studies described above. This increase in osmotic pressure caused by the trehalose supplementation of the media, may have decreased the rate of endocytosis for the cells [34]. Endocytosis has previously been found to play an important role in the delivery of hydrophilic species into cells using the related polymer PP-75 [21]. However since the delivery of trehalose into human erythrocytes which do not perform endocytosis, has previously been demonstrated [27], delivery through the cell membrane may also be important. It was concluded that PP-50 was capable of delivering hydrophilic species, such as trehalose, into cells. It should be noted that the PP-50 appeared to increase the rate of uptake of hydrophilic species by endocytosis compared to the control (Fig. 1).

Risk factors of pneumothorax after lung biopsy have been identifi

Risk factors of pneumothorax after lung biopsy have been identified in the literature with a lot of controversy. The suggested main factors influencing the incidence of pneumothorax AZD2281 are lesion size [42] and [43], lesion depth [42] and [44], contact with the pleura [23], the presence of emphysema on CT, transgression of fissures, a small angle of the needle with the thoracic pleura, and multiple

repositioning of the needle [48] and [49]. Various techniques have been proposed to reduce the incidence of a significant pneumothorax but their true efficacy remains unclear and none of them has found widespread acceptance [46], [50], [51], [52] and [53]. Recently, a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical study of using an expanding hydrogel lung biopsy tract plug in patients undergoing CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsy has shown significant reduction in the rates of pneumothorax, chest tube placement and post-procedure hospital

admission [33]. Pneumothorax that is small (<20% lung volume), asymptomatic and stable does not require treatment and conservative management is appropriate. The pneumothorax must be treated when it is symptomatic, its size exceeds 30% of the lung volume, and/or its size continues to increase. Treatment starts with administrating supplemental nasal oxygen and positioning biopsy side-down if possible. If the biopsy needle is still within the thorax, manual aspiration of the pneumothorax can be attempted [37] and [54]. Casein kinase 1 If the biopsy needle has been removed and the pneumothorax is large or symptomatic, emergent percutaneous decompression with a needle or catheter is necessary. Choosing a small-bore or large bore catheter depends on the pneumothorax size. As an expiratory upright chest radiograph is usually obtained immediately after biopsy as a baseline, serial chest radiographs are obtained to observe for the recurrence of pneumothorax. An unchanged small pneumothorax at 4 h post-biopsy is unlikely to become larger [55]. If the chest radiographs at 2 and 4 h post-biopsy show a stable small or decreasing pneumothorax and the patient

is asymptomatic, the patient can be discharged in accordance with institutional policy. Management specifics vary by institution, but good communication with the referring clinician or appropriate inpatient service regarding patient status and disposition is vital [56]. Hemorrhage is the second most common and the most dangerous potential complication of percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsy. At least to some extent, every percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsy is associated with some degree of hemorrhage. However, it is most often self-limited and resolves spontaneously without treatment. It may occur with or without hemoptysis. Hemorrhage and hemoptysis after percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsy occur in approximately 11% and up to 7%, respectively as reported in most series [38] and [57].

To display

the plane at midbrain level, the examination s

To display

the plane at midbrain level, the examination starts with the identification of the hypo- to anechogenic butterfly-shaped structure of mesencephalic brainstem surrounded by the highly echogenic basal cisterns in the axial scanning plane. PTC124 order The mesencephalic brainstem surrounded by the highly echogenic basal cisterns can easily be delineated in 90–95% of individuals, even in those with only partially sufficient acoustic bone windows. Within the brainstem, several structures of increased echogenicity, including SN, red nucleus, the midline raphe, and the aqueduct can be visualized. For the clinical applications described in this article, the assessment of SN echogenicity is most important. To date, the best-validated method to grade SN echogenicity is the planimetric measurement of SNs echogenic signals in axial plane [1], [2] and [20]. Semiquantitative visual Y-27632 ic50 grading was less reliable [20] and [21]. Efforts to quantify SN echogenicity in a less rater-dependent way, e.g., by measuring echointensity of SN relative to surrounding

parenchyma, volumetry, semi-automatic SN detection, or complex mathematical echo-signal analysis have either failed, or are not ripe for clinical application [20]. According to consensus guidelines [1], a marked SN hyperechogenicity is considered, if the measured

echogenic area exceeds a cut-off value defined by the 90% percentile of measures in normal population, and moderate hyperechogenicity, if the measured area ranges Urease in-between the 75% and 90% percentile of measures in normal population. Most authors use the larger of bilaterally measured sizes for rating SN echogenicity. Hitherto, standard reference values on echogenic sizes of the SN have been published for a number of ultrasound systems as listed in Table 2[14], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27] and [28]. To display the plane at thalamus level the ultrasound probe is tilted 10–20° in upward direction. An important landmark of the thalamus level is the usually calcified, and therefore highly echogenic pineal gland (Fig. 3). At this plane, the third ventricle, anterior horns of the lateral ventricles, the thalami and the anatomic site of the basal ganglia are depicted. The thalami are typically displayed as hypoechogenic oval structures; the thalami and the frontal horns help to discern the anatomical site of caudate nucleus and lenticular nucleus. At this level, the transverse diameters of the third ventricle, and of the frontal horn of the contralateral lateral ventricle can be measured [1] and [11]. Hydrocephalus can be easily diagnosed on TCS.