The incidence of ALS ranges between 1.5 to 2.5 for 100,000 per year. Although there are familial cases of ALS, about 90% are sporadic and of unknown etiology. Several exogenous risk factors have been documented. However, no convincing evidence has demonstrated in a reproducible SB525334 inhibitor manner an association between an environmental or lifestyle risk factor and ALS. Disease duration varies considerably, ranging from a few months to 10-15 years with a mean survival of about 36 months. Prognostic factors such as age,
site of disease onset, nutritional, functional and respiratory status at the diagnosis or delay between beginning of the disease and diagnosis have been reported but they appear to be insufficient to explain prognostic variability. These last 15 years, development of supportive care for ALS patients and management in ALS centers may have contributed to improve survival. Finally, ALS centres, and particularly French ALS centres, have developed databases to improve our knowledge of ALS, phenotypic characterization, more accurate phenotype-genotype correlations and thus contribute to new therapeutics developments. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We aimed to investigate the effects of levetiracetam on oxidative stress which is one of the new antiepileptic drugs in epileptic patients.\n\nMethods: The study consisted
of 21 patients with cryptogenic partial epilepsy. We Sonidegib price determined the urinary 15F-2t-isoprostane levels of the 30 patients which is a marker of oxidative stress. Morning urine samples were collected from the patients before beginning LEV and after 3 months treatment. Of these patients 9 were excluded Selleckchem LCL161 from the study that had seizure history in the last 1 month. Urinary
levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane determined by ELISA initially and after 3 months treatment for each patient.\n\nResults: Mean age of the 21 patients was 29.6, of these 11 were females and 10 males. Mean urinary 15F-2t-isoprostane level of the patients was 876 +/- 447 ng/mg Cr before the treatment of LEV. After 3 months treatment the mean 15F-2t-isoprostane level of the patients was 1560 +/- 630. The patients had significantly higher levels of urinary 15F-2t-isoprostane when compared with initial levels (p = 0.025).\n\nConclusion: Our results showed the increase of urinary 15F-2t-isoprostane levels in epileptic patients whom were treated with LEV which may indicate that LEV induces the oxidative stress in epileptic patients. (C) 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective To investigate the effects of swaddling experience on infant sleep, spontaneous arousal patterns and autonomic control.\n\nStudy design Twenty-seven healthy term infants, who were routinely swaddled at home (n = 15) or “naive” to swaddling (n = 12), were monitored with daytime polysomnography in swaddled and unswaddled conditions at 3 to 4 weeks and at 3 months after birth.
4% (95% confidence interval=3.5-5.3) and 1.5% (95% confidence interval=1.0-2.0), respectively. Among HCV RNA carriers, genotyping showed that HCV genotypes 2 and 3 were the most prevalent as they were detected in
18 (56.3%) and 5 (15.6%) individuals, respectively. HCV genotypes la and 4 were the least frequent among the blood donors. HCV mixed genotypes 2/3 and 2/4 were also detected among the blood donors. Conclusion. The prevalence of HCV found in this study is lower than previously reported prevalences. Large-scale studies are needed to obtain a better picture of the molecular epidemiology of HCV in Burkina Faso.”
“Background: In published case reports, tocilizumab (TCZ) has LDN-193189 inhibitor shown good efficacy for AA amyloidosis in almost all patients. We investigated the efficacy and Barasertib safety of TCZ in AA amyloidosis in a multicentre study of unselected cases. Methods: We e-mailed rheumatology and internal medicine departments in France, Switzerland and North Africa by using the Club Rhumatismes Inflammation (CRI) network and the French TCZ registry, Registry RoAcTEmra (REGATE), to gather data on consecutive patients with histologically proven AA amyloidosis who had received at least one TCZ infusion. Efficacy
was defined as a sustained decrease in proteinuria level and/or stable or improved glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and by TCZ maintenance. Results: We collected 12 cases of AA amyloidosis treated with TCZ as monotherapy (mean age of patients 63 +/- 16.2 years, amyloidosis duration check details 20.6 +/- 31.3 months): eight patients had rheumatoid arthritis (RA), six with
previous failure of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-alpha) therapy. In total, 11 patients had renal involvement, with two already on hemodialysis (not included in the renal efficacy assessment). For the nine other patients, baseline GFR and proteinuria level were 53.6 +/- 32.8 mL/min and 5 +/- 3.3 g/24 h, respectively. The mean follow-up was 13.1 +/- 11 months. TCZ was effective for six of the eight RA patients (87.5%) according to European League Against Rheumatism response criteria (four good and two moderate responders). As expected, C-reactive protein (CRP) level decreased with treatment for 11 patients. Renal amyloidosis (n = 9) progressed in three patients and was stabilized in three. Overall, three patients showed improvement, with sustained decrease in proteinuria level (42%, 82% and 96%). Baseline CRP level was higher in subsequent responders to TCZ than other patients (p = 0.02). Among the six RA patients with previous anti-TNF-alpha therapy, amyloidosis was ameliorated in one and stabilized in three. Three serious adverse events occurred (two diverticulitis and one major calciphylaxia due to renal failure). Finally, 7 of 12 (58%) patients continued TCZ. Conclusions: The efficacy of TCZ for AA amyloidosis varies depending on the inflammatory status at treatment onset.
Dozens of hard white conical structures radiated from the surface. Microscopically, conical structures were identified as denticles and rested
on plates of dysplastic orthodentine, cementum, and acellular bone. A diagnosis of compound odontoma was made based upon the presence of proliferative epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic VX-680 tissues that recapitulated tooth structures normally present on gill rakers. Odontomas are classified as hamartomas and typically develop in immature diphyodont mammals. The pharyngeal location and lifelong regeneration of teeth in fish, however, both qualify the present diagnosis in the pharyngeal region of an adult teleost. Ontogenic and morphologic differences between mammalian and piscine dentition and differentials for tooth-bearing
tumors in fish are presented within the context of a developmental anomaly.”
“The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize source and complex enzymes containing amylase, xylanase and protease on performance and nutrient utilization of broilers. The experiment was a 4×3 factorial design with diets containing four source maize samples (M1, M2, M3, and M4) and without or with two kinds of complex enzyme A (Axtra XAP) and B (Avizyme 1502). Nine hundred and sixty day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used in the trial (12 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 10 chicks). Birds fed M1 diet had better body weight gain (BWG) and lower feed/gain ratio compared with those fed M3 diet and M4 diet (p smaller than 0.05). Apparent ileal crude protein digestibility coefficient of M2 was higher than that of M3 (p smaller than 0.05). Apparent metabolisable CAL-101 energy (AME) and nitrogen corrected
AME (AMEn) of M1 were significant higher than those of M4 (p smaller than 0.05). Supplementation of the basal diets with enzyme A or B improved the BWG by 8.6% (p smaller than 0.05) and 4.1% (p bigger than 0.05), respectively. The fresh feces output was significantly decreased by the addition of enzyme B (p smaller than 0.05). Maize source affects the nutrients Selleckchem JIB04 digestibility and performance of broilers, and a combination of amylase, xylanase and protease is effective in improving the growth profiles of broilers fed maize-soybean-rapeseed-cotton mixed diets.”
“The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that a small dose of ketanserin, which enhances baroreflex activity, prevents the early lesions of atherosclerosis. In experiment 1, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was measured in 31 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) in a conscious state using a computerized blood pressure monitoring system. Four weeks later, the rats were administered vitamin D-3 and fed a high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks to induce atherosclerosis.\n\nThen their hearts and aortae were removed for pathological examination. A negative correlation was found between BRS and the scores of coronary (r = -0.460, P < 0.
\n\nRESULTS: The hemodynamic responses observed following intrathecal administration of the studied drugs demonstrated the following: 1) sildenafil selleck increased the mean arterial pressure and heart rate in a dose-dependent manner, 2)
increasing doses of 8-bromo-cGMP did not alter the mean arterial pressure and heart rate, 3) forskolin did not affect the mean arterial pressure but did increase the heart rate and 4) dibutyryl-cAMP increased the mean arterial pressure and heart rate, similar to the effect observed following the intrathecal injection of the highest dose of sildenafil.\n\nCONCLUSION: Overall, the findings of the current study suggest that the cardiovascular response following the intrathecal administration of sildenafil to conscious rats involves the inhibition of phosphodiesterases other than phosphodiesterase type 5 that increase the cAMP level and the activation of sympathetic preganglionic neurons.”
“Objectives. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of intaglio surface air-abrasion
JNJ-26481585 research buy on the retention of CAD/CAMproduced zirconia ceramic crowns cemented with three different types of cement. In addition the influence of artificial aging in masticatory simulator and thermocycling was tested.\n\nMethods. Extracted human premolars were prepared for all-ceramic crowns (12 degrees taper, 3mm axial length). CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were manufactured. Half of the crowns were airabraded with 50 mu m alumina particles at 0.25MPa, the rest was left as machined. The crowns were luted with zinc phosphate cement (Hoffmann), glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem), or composite resin (Panavia 21), subgroups were either stored for 3 days in 37 degrees
water bath or stored for 150 days in 37 degrees water bath, with additional 37,500 thermal cycles (5-55 degrees) and 300,000 cycles dynamic loading with 5 kg in a masticatory simulator. Then crown retention was measured in tension at a crosshead speed of 2mm/min using a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was performed with three-way ANOVA.\n\nResults. Lazertinib smiles Mean retention values were ranged from 2.8 to 7.1MPa after 3 days and from 1.6 to 6.1MPa after artificial aging. Air-abrasion significantly increased crown retention (p < 0.001), while artificial aging decreased retention (p = 0.017). In addition, the luting material had a significant influence on retention (p < 0.001) with the adhesive luting resin providing the highest retention.\n\nSignificance. The use of phosphate monomer containing composite resin on air-abraded zirconia ceramic can be recommended as most retentive luting method. (C) 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: To expose and remind the supamesocolic approach to the left renal pedicle, in addition to review its main indications.
“The DLTIDDSYWYRI motif (Ln2-P3) of human laminin-2 has been reported to promote PC12 cell attachment through syndecan-1; however, the in vivo effects of Ln2-P3 have not been find protocol studied. In Schwann cells differentiated from skin-derived precursors, the peptide was effective in promoting cell attachment and spreading in vitro. To examine the effects of Ln2-P3 in peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo, we developed a dual-component poly(p-dioxanone) (PPD)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) artificial nerve graft. The novel graft was coated with scrambled peptide or Ln2-P3 and used to bridge a 10mm defect in rat sciatic nerves. The dual-component nerve grafts provided tensile strength comparable
to that of a real rat nerve trunk. The Ln2-P3-treated grafts promoted early-stage peripheral nerve regeneration by enhancing the nerve regeneration rate and significantly increased the myelinated fibre density compared with scrambled peptide-treated controls. These findings indicate that Ln2-P3, combined with tissue-engineering scaffolds, has potential biomedical applications PFTα in peripheral nerve injury repair. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Background. Our aim was to examine
the potential role of glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78 during oral cancer progression and the prognostic value in oral precancerous lesions.\n\nMethods. A total of 204 patients with oral cancer and 86 with precancerous lesions were investigated. GRP78 expression was determined in the lesion tissues by Western blot analysis. Association of GRP78 with clinicopathology or disease prognosis was examined using Fisher’s exact, Kaplan-Meier, or Cox regression method.\n\nResults. Hyperexpression of GRP78 was found to be correlated with increasing JNJ-26481585 chemical structure malignant potential of oral lesions, with 14% in leukoplakia, 27% in erythroplakia, 50% in verrucous lesion, and 74% in oral cancer (p < .0001), suggesting this molecule plays a crucial role in the early steps of
oral oncogenesis. In patients with precancerous lesions of the oral cavity, GRP78 expression predicts poorer same-site premalignancy-free survival (p = .002) and malignancy-free survival rates (p = .002).\n\nConclusion. Determination of GRP78 expression levels might enable a better risk stratification for patients with oral premalignant lesions. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 32: 1028-1039, 2010″
“During the 2003-2006 period, the relationship of mortality from ischemic stroke (IS) and the environmental pollution in Yaroslavl, a Russian industrial center, was studied in 1983 patients with first ischemic stroke. A sample consisted of 978 men and 1005 women, the average age was 60.9 +/- 8.9 and 65.9 +/- 8.9 years, respectively. Additionally, the interactions between pollution, age, gender, and some of the major risk factors in these patients were analyzed.
Material and methods: We retrospectively evaluated 12 patients (2 women and 10 men, age range 9-44 years) with clinical and radiological suspicion of osteoid osteoma. Bone scintigraphy showed foci of pathology uptake compatible with suspected lesion in the femur (4 cases), tibia (3), vertebral column (3), humerus (1) and talus (1). Subsequently patients underwent surgical treatment by radioguided surgery after injection of a dose of Tc-99m-hydroxy diphosphonate. The nidus was removed using gamma probe and mini gamma camera, considering the technique to be completed when its counts decreased to the levels of the surrounding bone counts. Results: Lesions were located in
all patients (12 of 12), and were confirmed histologically in ARN-509 manufacturer 8 of them, including an osteoblastoma. The cure rate was 100%, based on the disappearance of pain after a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Conclusion: Use of radioguided surgery in the surgical treatment of osteoid osteoma showed satisfactory results, with 100% efficiency selleck chemicals in both lesion location and outcome of treatment and without major postoperative complications. (c) 2014 Elsevier Espana, S.L.U.
and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.”
“A number of proteins that play key roles in cell signaling are post-translationally modified by the prenylation pathway. The final step in this pathway is methylation of the carboxyl terminus of the prenylated protein by isoprenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase. Due to the impact of methylation on Rho function, we sought www.selleckchem.com/products/cilengitide-emd-121974-nsc-707544.html to determine if the process was reversible and hence could control Rho function in a dynamic fashion. Elevating isoprenylcysteine
carboxylmethyltransferase activity in cells has profound effects on MDA-MB-231 cell morphology, implying the presence of a pool of unmethylated prenyl proteins in these cells under normal conditions. Using a knockdown approach, we identified a specific esterase, carboxylesterase 1, whose function had a clear impact not only on the methylation status of RhoA but also RhoA activation and cell morphology. These data provide compelling evidence that C-terminal modification of prenyl proteins, rather than being purely a constitutive process, can serve as a point of regulation of function for this important class of protein.”
“Cholesterol present in the plasma membrane of target cells has been shown to be important for the infection by SARS-CoV. We show that cholesterol depletion by treatment with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (m beta CD) affects infection by SARS-CoV to the same extent as infection by vesicular stomatitis virus-based pseudotypes containing the surface glycoprotein S of SARS-CoV (VSV-Delta G-S). Therefore, the role of cholesterol for SARS-CoV infection can be assigned to the S protein and is unaffected by other coronavirus proteins.
SSR data are also used
for the estimation of marker mutation rates and allow pedigree inferences, particularly with founder genotypes of the currently grown cultivars, which are useful to understand the evolution of peach as a crop. Results https://www.selleckchem.com/products/citarinostat-acy-241.html on LD conservation can be explained by the self-pollinating nature of peach cultivated germplasm and by a bottleneck that occurred at the beginning of modern breeding practices. High LD suggests that the development of whole-genome scanning approaches is suitable for genetic studies of agronomically important traits in peach.”
“microRNAs play an important role in regulating synaptic plasticity. For example, microRNAs target (and are targeted by) plasticity mediators selleck kinase inhibitor such as CREB, MECP2, and FMRP. As well, specific microRNAs have been shown to be expressed within dendrites, where they regulate
protein translation of targets mediating dendritic growth. Components of the RISC machinery have been implicated in long-term memory in Drosophila. Here, we review evidence from studies of adult mouse forebrain supporting a model wherein synaptic stimulation (above a threshold value) increases calcium within dendritic spines, activates calpain, and activates and releases dicer from the postsynaptic density. Dicer processes local pre-miRs into mature miRNAs that are incorporated into RISC complexes within or near the dendritic spine, and that bind available target mRNAs in the vicinity. These may repress protein translation under resting conditions, yet permit a phasic burst of translation to occur transiently Saracatinib following subsequent synaptic activity. Loaded RISC complexes that are not bound to local mRNAs may serve to bind and trap mRNAs that are being transported down dendrites. Thus, locally formed microRNAs may mark
the location of previously activated synapses and perform a type of synaptic tagging and capture.”
“Relative to closed-canopy tropical forests, tree seedlings planted in open grown areas are exposed to higher light intensity, air temperatures, vapor pressure deficit, and greater seasonal fluxes of plant available water than mature tropical forests. The species-specific adaptive capacity to respond to variable precipitation and seasonality in open grown conditions, therefore, is likely to affect species performance in large-scale reforestation efforts. In the present study, we compared the photosynthetic characteristics of eight tropical tree species within and between seasons at two study sites with contrasting dry season intensities. All species except Pseudosamanea guachapele reduced leaf physiological function between the wet and dry seasons. The contrasting severity of seasonal drought stress at the study sites constrained growth rates and photosynthetic characteristics differently. Variation of photosynthetic characteristics at the species level was high, particularly in the dry season.
However, aqueous humor values of VEGF in diabetic dogs are not greater than nondiabetics and may serve to protect the dog against development of diabetic retinopathy.”
“Basal cell carcinoma is the most common type of malignant cutaneous Metabolism inhibitor neoplasm in humans, and it can be prevented and diagnosed early. The purpose of this study is to present clinical and microscopic findings of basal cell carcinoma in a population younger than 50 years of age. Microscopic examinations of multiple sections of skin lesion have been done, as well as a review of relevant literature.”
“We aimed to determine whether
the distal end of the humerus had the capacity of spontaneous realignment of the remaining deformity following an inadequate reposition
of the supracondylar fracture. The results in 56 children with a supracondylar humerus fracture were analysed. In 45 patients MLN2238 clinical trial (80%), manual repositioning was performed along with transcutaneous fixation, whereas in 11 patients (20%), only manual repositioning and immobilization in plaster cast was applied. Immobilization was removed and physical therapy was started in all patients on the 21st day following the intervention. Anteroposterior and left-lateral radiography was performed and Baumann’s angle was determined. Follow-up radiograph of the elbow of the traumatized and healthy extremity was performed at an interval of 5-15 years (median 9.4). There was no statistically significant difference between the relationship of Baumann’s angle of the injured arm measured on the 21st day after the reduction of fragments on the one hand and the carrying angle
of the injured and healthy arm measured at the long-term follow-up on the other (t=0.48, P=0.63). Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference between the relationship of Baumann’s angle of the injured arm measured at the long-term follow-up and the findings https://www.selleckchem.com/products/pci-34051.html of the carrying angle of both the injured and the healthy arm obtained on the same examination (t=0.78, P=0.44). On the basis of our experience, we conclude that there is no biological capacity to rectify a possible remaining postreduction varus deformity by spontaneous remodelling.”
“Aims: The elastic behaviour (acute recoil) of a valve prosthesis stent following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. This study sought to determine the occurrence, severity, predictive factors and haemodynamic consequences of acute recoil following TAVI. Methods and results: A prospective angiographic analysis of the stent frame dimensions in 111 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI with a balloon-expandable valve (36 Edwards SAPIEN; 75 SAPIEN XT) was performed. Acute recoil was defined as the difference between minimal lumen diameter (MLD) at full balloon expansion and immediately after balloon deflation. MLD during balloon inflation was significantly larger than MLD after balloon deflation (23.40 +/- 2.
The abundance of different invertebrate functional groups varied considerably between habitat types; no single habitat provided the highest densities of all groups, suggesting that a diversity of habitats is selleck chemical beneficial for ecosystem service delivery. Grassy
habitats supported the highest densities of predatory invertebrates, wild bird seed the most parasitoids and annual plant habitats the highest levels of chick food for farmland birds. Vegetation characteristics influenced total invertebrate biomass and levels of chick food, but not the total number of invertebrates or the abundance of those providing biocontrol. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Context: New Ilomastat clinical trial formulations, increased marketing, and wider recognition of declining testosterone levels in older age may have contributed to wider testosterone testing and supplementation in many countries. Objective: Our objective was to describe testosterone testing
and testosterone treatment in men in the United Kingdom and United States. Design: This was a retrospective incident user cohort. Setting: We evaluated commercial and Medicare insurance claims from the United States and general practitioner healthcare records from the United Kingdom for the years 2000 through 2011. Participants: We identified 410 019 US men and 6858 UK men who initiated a testosterone formulation as well as 1 114 329 US men and 66 140 UK men with a new testosterone laboratory measurement. Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures included initiation of any injected testosterone, implanted testosterone pellets, or prescribed transdermal or oral testosterone formulation. Results: Testosterone testing and supplementation have increased pronouncedly in the United States. Increased testing in the United Kingdom has identified more men with low levels, yet US testing has
increased among men with normal levels. Men in the United States tend to initiate at normal levels more often than in the United Kingdom, and many men initiate testosterone check details without recent testing. Gels have become the most common initial treatment in both countries. Conclusions: Testosterone testing and use has increased over the past decade, particularly in the United States, with dramatic shifts from injections to gels. Substantial use is seen in men without recent testing and in US men with normal levels. Given widening use despite safety and efficacy questions, prescribers must consider the medical necessity of testosterone before initiation.”
“Gender seems to interfere with the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning (PreC) and postconditioning (PostC); PreC-conferred protection is weaker or lost in female animals after ovariectomy (Ov), while the role of PostC is still in dispute.
(C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO) pathway plays a crucial role in ATP production in many tissues with high-energy
demand. This Ricolinostat molecular weight is highlighted by the diverse and possibly severe clinical manifestations of inborn fatty acid beta-oxidation deficiencies. More than fifteen genetic FAO enzyme defects have been described to date, forming a large group of rare diseases. Inborn FAO disorders are characterized by a high genetic heterogeneity, with a variety of gene mutations resulting in complete or partial loss-of-function of the corresponding enzyme. The panel of observed phenotypes varies from multi-organ failure in the neonate with fatal outcome, up to milder late onset manifestations associated with significant disabilities. Diagnosis of FAO disorders has markedly improved over the last decades, but few treatments are available. The clinical, biochemical, and molecular analysis of these disorders
provided new, and sometimes unexpected, data on the organization and regulation of mitochondrial FAO in humans, in various DMH1 tissues, and at various stages of development. This will be illustrated by examples of FAO defects affecting enzymes of long-chain fatty acid import into the mitochondria, or Lynen helix enzymes. The involvement of the transcriptional network regulating FAO gene expression, in particular the PGC-1 alpha/PPAR axis, as a target for pharmacological therapy of these genetic disorders, will also be discussed. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Background Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] can influence the development and disruption of atherosclerotic plaques through its effect on lipid accumulation. The purpose of this study was Navitoclax to evaluate the relationship between serum Lp(a) levels and plaque morphology of an infarct-related lesion and non-infarct-related lesion of the coronary artery in acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods
and results Coronary plaque morphology was evaluated in 68 patients (age 62.1 +/- 12.1 years, mean +/- SD; men n=58, women n=10) with AMI by intravascular ultrasound with radiofrequency data analysis before coronary intervention and by 64-slice computed tomography angiography within 2 weeks. Patients were divided into a group with an Lp(a) level of 25 mg/dl or more (n=20) and a group with an Lp(a) level of less than 25 mg/dl (n=48). Intravascular ultrasound with radiofrequency data analysis identified four types of plaque components at the infarct-related lesion: fibrous, fibrofatty, dense calcium, and necrotic core. The necrotic core component was significantly larger in the group with an Lp(a) level of 25 mg/dl or more than in the group with an Lp(a) level of less than 25 mg/dl (27.6 +/- 8.0 vs. 15.7 +/- 10.0%, P=0.0001).