As noted earlier, one of the important features of GPR equipment

As noted earlier, one of the important features of GPR equipment is the high resolution, especially within the first few meters, where medium-to-high frequency antennas are applicable. Some quality control experiments conducted on civil engineering structures or roads require centimetre, and sometimes millimetre, accuracy in both vertical and horizontal planes [9,10]. In GPR systems, a precise horizontal positioning is usually provided by an odometer, commonly a survey wheel. This device should be compatible with the system and software used for data acquisition and properly calibrated. The calibration should preferably be based on a long distance, in order to minimize errors in horizontal positioning.

An accurate vertical positioning is determined by both an adequate setting of the time zero of the two-way travel time scale and a proper estimation of the medium velocity in which the signal propagates. This velocity will provide a correlation between obtained signal’s propagation time and the range.Previous studies have shown that the time zero of the radargrams is not necessarily a fixed value, as it depends not only on each particular antenna and the distance between transmitter and receiver, but also on the electromagnetic properties of the medium located just beneath the antenna [11,12].To better understand our system and the emission characteristics of two bow-tie GPR antennas with nominal frequencies of 800 MHz and 1 GHz, we have conducted a series of tests following a methodology proposed by Rial et al. [1]. As a result, we performed a detailed analysis of the emitted wavelet in the time and frequency domains.

In addition, according to the recommendations made by Yelf [10], a time zero is determined for each antenna in order to improve accuracy in range estimations of the reflectors detected by the radar.2.?Antenna CharacteristicsThe antennas under test (AUT) are two GPR shielded antennas with central frequencies of 800 MHz and 1 GHz Anacetrapib respectively, manufactured by Mala Geoscience [Figures 2(a-b)]. These are ground-coupled biestatic antennas of the bowtie type.Figure 2.Antennas under test. (a) 1 GHz antenna. (b) 800 MHz antenna. (c) Composite radiation pattern of a ground-coupled shielded antenna.Although each evaluated antenna appears to be a single unit, most GPR systems use separate antennas for transmission and reception, known as the biestatic configuration.

This biestatic configuration is used because it is not yet possible to obtain ultra-fast transmit-receive switches that operate in the sub-nanosecond region with sufficiently low levels of isolation between transmit and receive ports [13]. The need to use separate transmit and receive antennas causes a convolution of the separate radiation patterns, forming a composite pattern [Figure 2(c)]. In this sense, the effective wavelet recorded is dependent on the characteristics of both dipoles, not only the transmitter.

with tunicamycin for 1 h and sec61 3 cells were incubated at 20 C

with tunicamycin for 1 h and sec61 3 cells were incubated at 20 C for 1. 5 h. Colony blot Yeast were grown on minimal medium at 30 C for 2 d and transferred to nitrocellulose. Nitro cellulose was incubated for 2 d upside down on minimal medium with 1% potassium acetate to increase CPY ex pression, and 10 h on minimal medium with 4 ug ml cy cloheximide. Cells were lysed in lysis buffer and carefully washed with TBS T. CPY levels were detected by immunoblotting with a specific polyclonal antibody against CPY. Secretory precursor accumulation at different temperatures Yeast cells were grown overnight at 30 C to an OD600 1 and incubated for 3 h at 37 C, 30 C or 20 C. Equal amounts of cells were lysed in 100 ul SDS sample buffer with glass beads in a bead beater for 2�� 1 min.

Extracts Drug_discovery were heated to 65 C for 10 min and equivalents of 0. 3 OD loaded for every lane onto 10% SDS PAGE gels. Proteins were separated in MOPS buffer, transferred to nitrocellulose and bands were de tected by immunoblotting with specific primary anti bodies, Sec62p, Sss1p, Schekman lab Primary anti bodies were detected with anti rabbit HRP antibodies and visualized with ECL. Pho8p and DPAPB were detected by immuno precipitation from 1 OD cells labelled for 5 min with Met Cys Mix as below. Pulse chase Yeast were grown overnight at 30 C in minimal medium without leucine to OD600 1. Cells were washed with labelling medium and concen trated to 4 OD ml. For each time point, 250 ul of the suspension were starved for 20 min at 30 C in labelling medium and pulsed for 5 min with 55 uCi Met Cys Mix.

For chase experiments, to each sample an equivalent volume of 2x chase mix in labelling medium was added and stopped by adding 500 ul ice cold Tris azide. The cells were washed with Tris azide, resuspension solution and resuspended in 150 ul lysis buffer and half a volume of acid washed glassbeads. Samples were lysed in a bead beater and proteins denaturated for 10 min at 95 C. Proteins were immunoprecipitated, pre cipitates denatured for 5 min at 95 C in sample buffer, and resolved on 10% SDS PAGE in MOPS buffer and bands detected by autoradiography. Cycloheximide chase Yeast were grown overnight to an OD600 1 and treated with 200 ug ml cycloheximide. An equal amount of cells were removed every 20 min for 60 min and washed with ice cold Tris azide to kill the cells.

Yeast were lysed with glass beads in a bead beater for 2�� 1 min in SDS sample buffer and lysates heated to 65 C for 10 min. After gel electrophoresis on 10% SDS PAGE in MOPS buffer CPY levels were detected by immuno blotting with CPY antibodies and continued as described above. Stability of the trimeric Sec61 complex in sucrose gradient centrifugation Microsomes were prepared as described in. A su crose gradient was prepared from 1 ml 15%, 10%, 5% and 0% sucrose in 50 mM HEPES KOH, pH 7. 5, 500 mM potassium acetate, 1 mM EDTA, 0. 1% Triton X 100, 0. 05% B mercaptoethanol, 1 mM PMSF, and 1�� protease inhibitor cocktail and allowed

d in Table 2 miRNA Indirect Functional Analysis Since miRNAs are

d in Table 2. miRNA Indirect Functional Analysis Since miRNAs are not included in any ontology data base, we performed an indirect functional analysis by screening the functional terms associated with the experimentally validated target coding genes of the miR NAs, extracted from TarBase. Once the target nno tated via GO terms or SP keywords, as above. mRNa miRNA Complex Functional Annotation We then checked the functional classifications coher ence between the indirect and direct functional analysis, within each significantly annotated factor. Thus, globally speak ing, F1 annotation is unchanged and related to functions that are responsible for signal transduction.

In F2?, 3 out of 7 target coding genes are annotated with terms that can be asso ciated to the categories significantly varied in the mRNA functional analysis, F2? is then confirmed to be a factor involved in functions related with adhesion and or che motaxis. For the miRNAs in F3, 5 out of 8 target cod ing genes are functionally related with the gene Batimastat expression term found in the mRNA functional analysis. Interestingly, most of the terms are related with mechanisms of transcription regulation and only one with protein ubi quitination. After direct and indirect annotation, 2 miR NAs and 31 human coding genes in F3 were selected as belonging to the same category. Not surprisingly, most of the coding genes in this list are not predicted to be targets of the 2 miRNAs that appear in the factor. In fact, the biological meaning of the result is a set of genetic elements that share cov ariability in the expression pattern and we know that, e.

g. in animals, most of the control on gene expression is performed by tuning translation. Therefore, the levels of miRNAs and the mRNAs of direct targets are not directly correlated. As it is also suggested in we can imagine that our list of coding genes contains the possible subset of indirect targets of two miRNAs, miR 17 5p, and miR 20b. Globally, F3 is confirmed to be associated with gene expression, with transcription regulation being the most common mechanism of expression. Emergent Properties Since the transcription regulation term appears to give the clearest biological information, coherent in mRNAs and miRNA, we focused our efforts on this part of the analysis. The total sets of mRNAs and miRNAs returned from this analysis are listed in Table S6 and S7 of the Additional file 1.

Latent Structure Chromosomal Loca lization, Most of the miRNAs in F3 belong to two poly cistronic miRNA genes where miRNAs are lying in close proximity on the chromosome. These polycistronic miRNA genes are involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis suppression, tumor angiogenesis and T cell leukemia. The first polycistronic gene is composed by 7 miRNAs and maps on Chromosome 13 whereas the second one maps on Chromosome �� and contains 6 miRNAs, details are shown in Figure 1. The two clusters are closely related, in fact, each miRNA on one cluster has at least one homologo

s were transferred to si well plates, they were stimulated for 4

s were transferred to si well plates, they were stimulated for 4 hours with IL 1B in serum free media. The SOCS1 overe pressing HACs were cultured in pellets 24 hours before the stimulation with IL 1B. Overe pression and knockdown of human SOCS1 To generate the pBABE viral vector containing the myc tagged human SOCS1, SOCS1 cDNA was amplified with two primer sets that con tained a BamH1 or EcoRI restriction enzyme site. PCR products were digested with BamH1 and EcoRI and cloned into the pBABE viral vectors. To produce retrovirus, the pBABE SOCS1 viral vectors were trans fected into a Platinum A retroviral packing cell line. Su pernatants were collected 72 hours after transfection. To infect SW1353 cells, viral supernatant was mi ed with fresh medium with 8 ug ml of polybrene at 1 1 ratio, and the mi ture was applied to freshly seeded cells.

To deliver SOCS1 or control shRNA into the SW1353 cells, SOCS1 shRNA or copGFP lentiviral particles were mi ed with fresh medium and 5 ug ml of polybrene, and the mi GSK-3 ture was applied to freshly seeded cells. Stable overe pressing or knockdown cell lines were selected with puromycin. To establish SOCS1 overe pressing HACs, pShuttle2 SOCS1 or empty vector was electro transfected by using a Gene Pulser cell System under the condition of 50 V and 2 ms pulse. Measurement of MMPs and TIMP 1 in culture supernatants Nontransfected and transfected SW1353 cells were plated onto 48 well plates for 24 hours and then pretreated with serum free media for 2 hours. The cells were stimulated with IL 1B for 24 hours.

The concentrations of MMP 1, 3, and ?13 and TIMP 1 in the conditioned media were measured with commercial ELISA kits according to the manufac turers instructions. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for SOCS 1 Quantitative real time RT PCR was performed by using an ABI 7500 real time PCR machine. Specific Taqman primers and probes for SOCS1 MMP 1 MMP 3, MMP 13, ADAMTS4 were purchased from Applied Biosystems. The number fold difference in the e pression of tar get mRNA was calculated with a comparative Ct method, normalized to GAPDH. Western blotting and immunoprecipitation To prepare the total cell lysates, SW1353 cells were washed twice with ice cold PBS, harvested, and lysed in IP buffer, 150 mM NaCl, 1% Triton 100, 25 mM B glycerophosphate, phosphatase inhibitor cocktail, and protease inhibitor cocktail for 60 minutes on ice.

For immunoprecipitation, TAK1 antibody was added to the whole cell e tracts and incubated on a rotator overnight at 4 C. Then the protein G agarose beads were further incu bated for 3 hours at 4 C. The mi tures were centri fuged at 2,095 g for 3 minutes. The precipitates were washed 3 times by using pre cold IP buffer, and the beads were resuspended in 2�� SDS sample buffer. The immunoprecipitates or the whole cell lysates were separated on 10% denaturing polyacrylamide gels and transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. The membranes were probed with appropriate primary

Ten ��L of the saturated solution were coated onto the interdigit

Ten ��L of the saturated solution were coated onto the interdigitated electrodes by drop casting and dried in air at 353 K for 15 min. For the SnO2 sensor fabrication, 2.0 g SnO2 was dissolved in 25 mL DIW and the mixture was ultrasonicated for 1h to give a homogenous saturated solution at 298 K, after which 10 ��L of the prepared SnO2 solution was also coated onto the interdigitated electrodes by drop coating and then dried in air at 353 K for 15 min. All experiments were conducted at ambient conditions with a temperature of 24.5 �� 0.5 ��C and relative humidity of 45 �� 5%.2.3. Characterization and Gas Sensing Measurement SystemThe morphologies of SnO2-PDDAC and SnO2 films were characterized by a SEM (XL30S-FEG, FEI, The Netherlands) equipped with an EDX detector (EDAX Instruments, USA).

The mean grain size was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (Bruker D8 Focus, Germany). The detailed characterization of the SnO2-PDDAC sample was carried out by TEM (JEM-1011, JEOL, Japan). FT-IR (Excalibur 3100, Varian, USA) was used to characterize the components of each film. The gas sensing tests were performed by the gas sensing measurement system (NSSRL-811, Kena Smart Instruments, Wuhan, China), as shown in Figure 1. As the figure shows, two mass flow controllers (MFCs) were used to control the flow rate of synthetic air (dry air), the carrier gas, and ethanol, the target gas, respectively. The gases were purchased from the Beijing Tai Long Electron Technology Co. Ltd., Beijing, China. The carrier gas and target gas were mixed in the mixing chamber and then were introduced to the testing chamber.

A PC was connected to the testing circuit to monitor and record the resistance of the sensor. The temperature and humidity of the testing room were controlled by a central air conditioner. The gas sensing measurement was conducted by exposing the sensor in ethanol for 10 min and air for 10 min, respectively. The flow rate of the gas is 500 mL/min, and the volume of the chamber is 275 mL.Figure 1.Gas sensing measurement system.3.?Result and Discussion3.1. Ethanol Sensing TestsThe sensor response (S) was defined as:S=(Rgas?Rair)��100/Rair=��R��100/Rair(1)In Equation (1), Rgas and Rair are the electrical resistance when exposed to ethanol and air, respectively. The gas sensing properties of SnO2-PDDAC and SnO2 sensors at room temperature were both tested.

Figure 2(a) shows the typical response of SnO2-PDDAC, SnO2 and PDDAC sensors to 150 ppm ethanol. The response of the SnO2 and PDDAC sensors to 150 ppm ethanol was used as the reference. The response time is defined as the time of the sensor needs to reach 90% of the equilibrium value after the injection Cilengitide of the test gas.Figure 2.(a) Response of the SnO2�CPDDAC and SnO2 sensor to 150 ppm ethanol at room temperature; (b) The response time of the SnO2-PDDAC and SnO2 sensors to 150 ppm ethanol.

Experiments on structural-acoustic coupling were conducted as wel

Experiments on structural-acoustic coupling were conducted as well by some researchers. It was reported that a finite thin cylindrical shell was excited by an internal acoustic source, and the pressure field of the shell could be measured using laser measurements [14]. Some other researchers investigated the structural-acoustic mode of the cylindrical duct, which was used for the geometrical shape design of a cavity device [15]. The effects of structural-acoustic coupling are of concern in the areas of vibration analysis, structural design and optimization, etc. [16]. In the field of Coriolis vibratory gyroscopes, studies on the structural-acoustic coupling effect are relatively scarce.

Reference [17] shows that if the acoustic energy frequency components are close to the eigenfrequency of the mechanical structure in the MEMS gyroscope, undesirable motion of the sensor proof mass resulting in signal corruption can be produced. In [18,19] it is revealed that the performance of a vibratory cylinder gyroscope may also suffer from intense acoustic noises. However, little quantitative data or analysis has been presented. Most efforts to improve the gyroscope performance have concentrated on the vibratory structural elements, such as material processing, structural optimization and evolution. [2,4,7,20]. It is easily known that the vibration amplitude of the thin resonant shell is highly sensitive to the pressure exerted on its surface, and the resonant frequency of the resonant shell can be affected as well.

Therefore, the performance of the vibratory cylinder gyroscopes will be uncertain when the structural-acoustic coupling effect is taken into account.In this paper, the structural-acoustic coupling effect on a type of low cost vibratory cylinder gyroscope without vacuum packaging is studied. The dynamical behavior of the resonant shell is analyzed in theory. In addition, the coupling effects are quantitatively analyzed based on FE simulation. It is found that the operating frequency, the acoustic pressure and the vibration amplitude of Dacomitinib the resonant shell are changed due to the gap variation between the resonant shell and the sealing cap. The degree of vacuum is also changed to observe the fluctuation of the shell vibration. Finally, experiments were implemented to study the mechanical sensitivity (scale factor) of the gyroscope which could be affected by the structural-acoustic coupling effect.

The simulation and experimental results are useful for a deeper understanding of the performance of the vibratory cylinder gyroscopes without vacuum packaging.2.?Gyroscope DescriptionThe typical vibratory cylinder gyroscope analyzed in this paper is shown in Figure 1. The physical part of the gyroscope is mainly made up by a resonant shell, a sealing cap and a base. The resonant shell is fabricated with nickel alloy such as Ni42CrTi and Ni-SPAN-C Alloy 902 [2].

Some studies show that 40% of patients who use a power wheelchair

Some studies show that 40% of patients who use a power wheelchair think it is difficult to drive, and between 5% and 9% require the assistance of another person [2]. Sometimes it is possible to improve the autonomy with smart wheelchairs that are equipped with sensors and exploit control algorithms from the field of mobile robotics [3]. This is not possible in other cases, so an attendant to drive the chair is required. In these cases, the chairs usually have so-called ��joysticks�� which are incorporated in the rear handle of the chair [4].However, as already mentioned, these human-machine interfaces are not always the most appropriate tool. Some authors propose the use of a tactile screen instead [5,6]. The user touches the screen, similar to that of common smart devices nowadays, to lead the chair or indicate the destination.

However, this solution often suffers from the disadvantage, described above, of the lack of easy handling and thus the incorrect interaction between man and machine, which is detrimental to the usability of the system [7].Therefore, there is a need for an intuitive and highly usable interface for power wheelchairs. This interface can also be used to drive electric trolleys, for instance shopping trolleys [8], which will also increase and extend the autonomy of the elderly or impaired. They will even be helpful for healthy people that have to drive trolleys with heavy loads [9]. In [8,9] it is proposed that the user takes a handle or grip with his or her hands and drives the vehicle as if he or she were pushing it.

However, they do not really use GSK-3 a direct interface between man and machine, moreover the force actually exerted on the handle is transferred to other points where force and/or torque sensors are placed. Such action can lead to problems arising from the deformation of the elastic bands or the means used to transmit the user commands. Furthermore, the deformation of these areas can have a complex behavior over time as a result of a complex dynamics of the set, and the readings of the sensors placed in the bands or elastic joints should be registered, which makes the control (from the readings of the sensors) complex. Another interesting work devoted to exploring the role of a tactile sensor as a human-machine interface is presented in [10], where manipulative forces are predicted from the information provided by the tactile images of the forearm.

The proposed device is based on a tactile sensor [11] to achieve a direct interface with the attendant. The tactile sensor provides information not only about the location of the contact points, but also about the contact force at these points, so its output is a force map or tactile image. The processing of this map gives the information required to drive the chair or trolley in an intuitive way.

Most FPGAs could provide configurable I/O standards in order to

Most FPGAs could provide configurable I/O standards in order to allow a wide range of devices to be connected and operated at different voltage levels without the need to use adapter interfaces or voltage converters, significantly simplifying the design and reducing costs. For example, the Spartan-3 FPGA from Xilinx provides various I/O bank standards like LVCMOS, LVTTL, GTL, HSTL, PCI, SSTL, LDT, LVDS, RSDS, and LVPECL that can operate at different voltage levels from 1.2 to 3.3 V.Some FPGAs incorporate a large amount of arithmetic blocks that can be low-complexity blocks such as simple multipliers or can be relatively more complex like the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) units which consist of combinations of various components like multipliers, adders, accumulators, shift registers, etc.

A DSP unit significantly accelerates the FPGA’s performance and allows achieving greater productivity and flexibility, while decreasing cost and power consumption. For instance, each Stratix II and Stratix II GX device (from Altera) has two to four columns of DSP blocks that efficiently implement multiplication, multiply-accumulate and multiply-add functions. The number of DSP blocks per column and the number of columns available depends on the device, for example, the EP2S180 device from the Stratix II family has 96 DSP Blocks, 769 9 �� 9 Multipliers, 384 18 �� 18 Multipliers and 96 36 �� 36 Multipliers. Furthermore, internal memories offer very high relative speed compared with external memories. Current FPGAs contain large amounts of internal memory blocks, for instance, up to 34 Mb of internal RAM in the Virtex-6 devices from Xilinx.

Other memory types can be found such as Random Access Memory (RAM), Read Only Memory (ROM) or shift registers. In addition the designer can implement other memory structures like First In First Out (FIFO).The cost reduction of the FPGAs, their increasing capabilities and the possibility of improving the performance of sensor systems with specific hardware technologies have led their use in new application fields related with sensors to clearly increase. This paper presents a state of the art overview of the research on sensor systems based on FPGAs in Spain. A great number of applications are integrated in systems that require high data throughputs. Application fields such as image processing and wireless sensors can take advantage of the increasing density of the chips.

Nowadays, it is possible to find not only applications in research laboratories, but Cilengitide also in real sensory systems. It is possible to find new fields with growing demand such as thermal management, automotive, robotics, industrial control, medical, reduction of power consumption, etc. All these sensor-based applications employ FPGAs with different purposes, as it will be described throughout the paper.

The methodology, based both on geomatic survey techniques and GIS

The methodology, based both on geomatic survey techniques and GIS analyses tools developed to achieve the aforesaid goals, requires:the availability of pictures taken by first aiders (law enforcement agents, forensic scientists, etc.), that provides information about the crime scene before items are moved or interfered with. Generally those pictures are acquired for record keeping purposes, focusing the attention on the semantic content and neglecting the geometric one, thus they are characterized by large geometric distortions that require an adequate modelling to be corrected;the availability of the shoes of the suspect (eventually of all the people whose movements on the crime scene have to be verified), to create a sole 3D model required as input data to reconstruct a specific sole footprint.

The availability of the real shoes is critical because particular sole consumption shapes may affect significantly shape and extent of the contact surface.A schema of the methodology developed by the authors is proposed in Figure 1, to allow the readers to better understand the structure of this paper and its most innovative parts.Figure 1.Schema of the developed methodology.2.?Reference data acquisitionIn order to correctly georeference all the images and data acquired at a crime scene by first aiders it is fundamental to have the sufficient number of 3D reference points characterized by high geometric accuracy.

These point can be used both as Ground Control Points (GCPs), required for the georeferencing procedures (see Section 3.1.2), Entinostat and as independent Check Points (CPs), useful for the evaluation of accuracy.

Generally this kind of data are obtained by means of surveying or phogrammetry. In the following chapters these techniques will be briefly described; they are often used jointly in order to have a redundant number of measurements, for two main reasons: crime scenes are not easily accessible in case of accidental data loss and the availability of redundant data allows one to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated coordinates.Surveying techniques help determine accurately the terrestrial or 3D space position of points and the distances and angles between them, using a total station instrument (Figure 2a) or a laser scanner (Figure 2b).

Figure 2.(a) Example of a total station (Leica TPS1200+ Total Station); (b) example of a 3D time of flight laser scanner (Riegl LMS-Z420i); (c) example of a 3D triangulation laser scanner (Creaform Handyscan 3D).A laser scanner is usually used to create AV-951 a point cloud of geometric samples on the surface of an object. These points can then be used to extrapolate the shape of the subject (a process called reconstruction).

In rangeland and savannah environments pastures are highly hetero

In rangeland and savannah environments pastures are highly heterogeneous, with mixed plant species of different phenology, a wide range in biomass and the amount of exposed soil background. The spatial scale of many remotely-sensed images is too coarse to represent this heterogeneity. In tropical environments, the predominance of tall ��tussock�� grasses makes ground-based measurement of biomass difficult. We focus here on the remote sensing of pastures rather than other landscape features such as trees.Within herbivore grazing systems, independent information derived from remotely-sensed images is used to infer relationships between the animal’s landscape preferences and the inferred vegetation characteristics.

These layers of inference introduce uncertainty, which may be reduced by directly correlating herbivore preferences based on GPS monitoring of herbivore movement with their landscape preferences. This approach reduces the uncertainty associated with the inference methods and removes the need to obtain ground-based vegetation calibration data. Wireless sensor networks enable high temporal-frequency GPS monitoring of animal locations to be directly linked to the spatially extensive measurements from remotely-sensed satellite images. An additional advantage of using WSNs is that no direct user involvement is required to download data from the devices, as is the case with traditional data loggers mounted on animals, and the data are streamed to the user in real-time. Studies that have combined multiple sensors within an integrated environment are rare and reflect the technological constraints of integration.

Wark and others [8] showed preliminary work on how ground-based multi-spectral sensors and satellite remotely-sensed data may be combined using a WSN. Bro-J?rgensen and others [32] showed how satellite-derived NDVI could be used to explain ranging patterns in antelope behaviour.Radio-transceivers and passive radio frequency identification (RFID) devices have been used to record information on animal ID and more recently to explore social interactions [33]. In particular, transceivers worn by a pair of animals can collect Cilengitide information on social encounters. The devices, referred to as contact or proximity loggers, record the date, time and duration of a close encounter. The inter-animal distance that is recorded as an encounter by the proximity logger can be adjusted by varying the transmission power setting of the device. Proximity loggers have been used to explore social interactions between cows and calves and also to explore potential risks of disease transmission by recording contacts between wild and domesticated animals [14,34].