Vehicle-following has been an important topic of traffic flow res

Vehicle-following has been an important topic of traffic flow research in the past 50 years. Many deterministic vehicle-following models have been proposed and studied [1] and many of them are being used in microscopic traffic simulation tools [2]. Earlier studies, for example [3], relied on limited sets of data collected from instrumented vehicles driven in test tracks. Results of the earlier studies have been y-secretase inhibitor developed into the well-known Gazis, Herman, and Rothery or simply the GHR model [3,

4]. Users of the GHR model or other deterministic models have assumed that the selected model, once calibrated with its fixed parameter values, was applicable to all driver-vehicles; that is, the driver-vehicle population is homogenous. Some microscopic traffic simulation tools distinguish the behavior between different driver-vehicles by using the same model but vary the parameter values between different driver-vehicles. With the large-scale vehicle trajectory data collection efforts

enabled by remote sensing techniques in the past decade, several researchers have begun studies on heterogeneous vehicle-following behavior between driver-vehicles and/or for the same driver-vehicle [5–8]. Such studies still relied on one or more prespecified vehicle-following equations. The researchers either (i) calibrated different equations to show that different driver-vehicles responded with different driving rules; (ii) calibrated the same equation but different parameter values between driver-vehicles; or (iii) calibrated the same equation but different parameter values between acceleration and deceleration. Such studies still depend on the deterministic equations, which may need to be calibrated to different segments of the driver-vehicle population.

In this paper, we use the term vehicle-following instead of the conventional term car-following, as the lead or following vehicle may be a truck instead of a car. We propose to use the self-organizing feature map (SOM) to replicate vehicle-following behavior. The SOM consists of neurons arranged systematically on a two-dimensional surface Carfilzomib (known as a “map”). Each neuron has a prototype weight vector that represents the characteristic features in the input space. Such structure is capable of mapping patterns in the high dimensional input space into a two-dimensional map. According to the unsupervised learning rule, vectors that are similar to each other in the multidimensional space will be clustered in the same neighborhood in the SOM’s two-dimensional space, which makes it possible to be adopted as a tool of data classification. Conventional neural networks do not have the unsupervised clustering capability. Because of its unique structure, users of the SOM do not need to specify the function between the input features and its output variable. No equation needs to be predefined and no parameter calibration is necessary.

We therefore checked our main results with the secondary (longitu

We therefore checked our main results with the secondary (longitudinal) analysis, which assessed subsequent diagnosis in those had met the criteria for ‘illness burden’, and subsequent treatment in those with a medical diagnosis, but the number mGlur5 drugs of participants who could be followed through the waves in this way was too small to allow meaningful conclusions to be drawn from the results. Our results fit with previous findings that a greater proportion of people in deprived groups had Rose Angina, but there was no difference in the proportions receiving a general practitioner diagnosis of coronary heart disease.14 Care-seeking behaviour and patient preferences

may differ with wealth. Given the same information, patients may want fewer medical interventions than their doctors recommend33 34 and pessimism about availability of treatment may make older people reluctant to seek help.35 Older people may view living with symptoms (such as pain, or emotional problems) as a normal part of ageing.36 The response of the primary care physician may also vary with the wealth of the patient. For example, the physician might be more likely to consider symptoms of breathlessness as a medical problem requiring a diagnosis, whereas aches and pains, poor vision and low mood might be considered part of the tapestry of life, or the natural ageing process. Comorbidity is more common

in deprived populations, and may make diagnosis of all conditions harder for doctors within the constraints of a short consultation.37 At a system level, the results may be partially explained by wealthier people living in areas where there are more healthcare resources. Wennberg introduced the concept of ‘supply-sensitive care’ to describe how the quantity of healthcare resources allocated to a particular population was a major determinant of the frequency of use of health services by that population, and gives an example in which “a doubling

of the supply of internists or cardiologists results in roughly a halving of the interval between repeat visits.”38 39 Where healthcare resources are relatively plentiful, patients with chronic diseases will consult more, use more diagnostic tests and be referred to hospital more. Further research could helpfully investigate whether those missing out on diagnosis are not accessing health services, or are seeing a doctor but not being diagnosed. The participants were selected to be nationally representative of the population of England, and so the findings are likely to be generalisable to England, AV-951 but not to countries with different healthcare systems. If validated, our findings that inequalities in receipt of diagnoses are potential barriers to equitable healthcare for five common long-term conditions suggest that future policy interventions to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in healthcare should consider improving access to diagnosis as well as treatment. Supplementary Material Reviewer comments: Click here to view.

A meta-analysis

A meta-analysis Bcl-xL apoptosis from 2009 summarised more than 200 studies in health professions education, and concluded that e-learning is associated with large positive effects compared with no intervention, but compared with other interventions the effects are generally small.12 There is a lack of drug dose calculation studies where different didactic methods are compared. The objective of this study was to compare the learning outcome, certainty and risk of error in drug dose calculations after courses with either self-directed e-learning or conventional classroom teaching. Further aims were to study factors associated with

the learning outcome and risk of error. Methods Design A randomised controlled open study with a parallel group design. Participants Registered nurses working in two hospitals and three municipalities in Eastern Norway were recruited to participate in the study. Inclusion criteria were nurses with at least 1 year of work experience in a 50% part-time job or more. Excluded were nurses working in outpatient

clinics, those who did not administer drugs and any who did not master the Norwegian language sufficiently. The study was performed from September 2007 to April 2009. Interventions At inclusion, all participants completed a form with relevant background characteristics, and nine statements from the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 30).13 Quality of Life tools are often used to explore psychological well-being. The GHQ 30 contains the dimensions of a sense of coping and self-esteem/well-being, and was used to evaluate to what extent the nurses’ sense of coping affected their calculation skills. The nurses performed a multiple choice (MCQ) test in drug dose calculations. The questions were standard calculation tasks for bachelor

students in nursing at university colleges. The test was taken either on paper or on an internet website. The time available for the test was 1 h, and the participants were allowed to use a calculator. After the test, the nurses were randomised to one of two 2-day courses in drug dose calculations. One group was Entinostat assigned to a self-directed, interactive internet-based e-learning course developed at a Norwegian university college. The other was assigned to a 1-day conventional classroom course and a 1-day self-study. The content of the two courses was the same: a review of the basic theory of the different types of calculations, followed by examples and exercises. The topics covered were conversion between units; formulas for dose, quantity and strength; infusions; and dilutions. The e-learning group continued with interactive tests, hints and suggested solutions. They had access to a collection of tests with feedback on answers, and a printout of the compendium was available. The classroom group had 1 day lecture covering the basic theory; exercises in groups; discussion in a plenary session and an individual test at the end of the day.

YHua, WQ and XC analysed the data and drafted the manuscript CL,

YHua, WQ and XC analysed the data and drafted the manuscript. CL, DZ and JH collected the data. YW, YHu and DX revised the manuscript. YHu and DX participated in administrative and technical support. Funding: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors. Competing interests: None. Patient consent: Obtained. Ethics approval: Health Authority Research Ethics Board of the First People’s Hospital of Shunde, Foshan, People’s Republic of China. Provenance and peer review: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. Data sharing statement: No additional data are available.
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is

a syndrome characterised by pain persisting for more than

3 months following the resolution of herpes zoster.1–4 In addition, the clinical manifestations include allodynia, dysaesthesia and pruritus along the distribution of the involved dermatome. The incidence of PHN is 4/1000 per year, which further increases to 12/1000 among people aged over 80 years.5 The relevant risk factors for PHN include old age, female gender, greater severity of acute pain, greater rash severity, degree of sensory impairment, psychological distress, a painful prodrome, diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiencies and diminished cell-mediated immunity.6–10 However, the most relevant risk factor is old age.11 12 It is uncommon in people aged under 50 years, but approximately 83% of PHN occurs in those aged above 50 years. 13 Owing to the persisting or intermittent spontaneous pain, PHN has a serious impact on the patients’ daily activities (eg, dressing, bathing, sleep), quality of life, general health, psychological health (eg, depression and difficulty with concentration), and social and economic well-being.14 15 Though the pathophysiology of PHN is poorly understood, postmortem studies in patients with PHN have found demyelination and axonal loss in peripheral nerves and sensory roots.16 Since PHN frequently resolves spontaneously

over time and the evaluation is unclear regarding the efficacy of treatments,17 18 pain reduction may be incorrectly attributed to current treatments for PHN. There are conventional treatments for PHN, such as tricyclic antidepressants Cilengitide (TCAs), antiepileptics, opioids, tramadol, lidocaine and capsaicin, which are probably effective to relieve some of the pain for a period of time. However, approximately 50% of patients may still not obtain satisfactory analgesia despite treatments with these medications.4 Moreover, being the first-line treatment suggested worldwide for PHN, TCAs and antiepileptics (gabapentin and pregabalin) still bring a high incidence of adverse events, including sedation, xerostomia, confusion, dysrhythmia, weight gain, dizziness, somnolence, fatigue and ataxia.

It is imperative that these solutions are explored and tested in

It is imperative that these solutions are explored and tested in current CBE programmes so that the impact of programme drawbacks may be reduced. This would be the way-forward selleckchem to strengthening the implementation of CBE in medical curricula. An assortment of models were seen to be used for community-based teaching in the UK, where programmes varied in their methods of delivery, durations of exposure and points of undergraduate education at which the teaching was delivered. This is congruous with guidance from the GMC publication ‘Tomorrow’s Doctors’, which

states that it was for each medical school to design its own curriculum to suit its own circumstance. It should be noted that community-based education broadly encompasses varied delivery formats, including both clinical and non-clinical experiences. Unfortunately, the diversification of CBE poses a challenge for developing a standardised set of criteria for evaluating the outcomes of CBE. Consequently, it becomes difficult to establish a national framework for quality assurance of medical curricula, and to make recommendations for improving the implementation of CBE. In order to achieve the expectations laid out for ‘Tomorrow’s Doctors’,4 there is a principal need to define the competencies that are required to prevent illness and promote health in the primary care or community-based setting.

Ladhani et al,38 for example, categorised six themes of community-based education competencies within nursing and medicine: public health; cultural diversity; leadership and management; community development and advocacy;

research and evidence-based practice; and generic competencies. Subsequently, a national framework may be derived from these key competencies so as to measure the effectiveness of community-based teaching in achieving these targeted goals. The development of a national framework was explored and suggested by Cotton et al,39 where a list of criteria for quality practice-based teaching in the UK was consensually derived from views of medical educators and students at a national conference. However, since its development, there has been no literature found on the use of these criteria to objectively evaluate community-based education at a local, regional or national level. More work in this area should be encouraged Brefeldin_A to achieve a national standard for community-based education in the UK. Little data was found on the cost implications of community-based teaching. Given the wide variations in the format of CBE programmes conducted across the UK, it is difficult to make general conclusions about the cost impact of community-based teaching. Nonetheless the findings from Oswald et al’s17 study sets a benchmark for other similar community teaching within the UK.

However, these numbers are shown here for the completion Table 4

However, these numbers are shown here for the completion. Table 4 Number of all causes and selected causes of death selleck kinase inhibitor among men and women separately among the

AUD group and the comparison group HR, 95% CIs adjusted for age, number of visits, year of entrance and mental and behavioural disorders at discharge In order to test whether patients with other alcohol-related main diagnoses than those in F10 biased our HR, we counted the main diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease (ICD code K70) and toxic effect of alcohol (ICD-10, code T51) in the exposed and non-exposed groups. In all, 62 patients were found with these diagnoses (all in the comparison group), of whom five had died. The cause of death of each of the three patients was ICD-10, codes F10, I25, and X45, respectively, and the cause of death of the other two patients was K70. We subtracted these patients from the data and recalculated the HR corresponding to the results in table 3. The

HR for all causes of death (A00-Y98) was 1.88 (95% CI 1.48 to 2.39). For mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F99) (HR=6.19 (95% CI 1.94 to 19.79)); for AUDs (F10) (HR=56.22 (95% CI 12.79 to 247.13)); for diseases of the circulatory system (I00-I99) (HR=2.54 (95% CI 1.74 to 3.72)); for ischaemic heart diseases (I20-I25) (HR=1.42 (95% CI 0.45 to 4.43)); for diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J99) (HR=2.12 (95% CI 0.78 to 5.73)); for diseases of the digestive system (K00-K93) (HR=4.77 (95% CI 2.02 to 11.24)); for chronic liver disease (K70, K73-K74) (HR=16.27 (95% CI 5.46 to 48.46)); for alcoholic liver disease (K70) (HR=21.83 (95%

CI 6.80 to 70.08)); for external causes of injury and poisoning (V01-Y98) (HR=3.87 (95% CI 2.37 to 6.33)); for accidental poisoning (X40-X49) (HR=9.44 (95% CI 2.34 to 38.05)); for suicide and intentional self-harm (X60-X84) (HR=2.78 (95% CI 1.11 to 6.95)); and for events of undetermined intent (Y10-Y34) GSK-3 (HR=11.01 (95% CI 4.60 to 26.33)). Discussion This population-based study showed increased all-cause mortality among people who visited the ED and received an AUD diagnosis compared to those who did not receive an AUD diagnosis, while taking into consideration mental disorders other than AUDs, frequency of visits, year of entrance, age and gender. The HR for all causes of death is almost double (HR=1.91), consistent with results from previous studies which have shown a significant relationship between alcohol abuse and increased mortality ratio.1–3 16 According to Roerecke and Rehm’s2 meta-analysis, the relative risk for combined genders in population studies was 1.95 (CI 1.49 to 2.55).

45 kg) and caloric requirements (20–30 kcal/kg/day) as per Misra

45 kg) and caloric requirements (20–30 kcal/kg/day) as per Misra et al.7 In the non-T2DM group (n=409), 66.8±9.1% (95% CI 65.9 to 67.7) of total energy came from total CHO. The difference between T2DM and non-T2DM groups was 2.7% (p<0.001). As expected, the non-T2DM group consumed simple CHO at Temsirolimus supplier a higher level than the recommended level (13.9±13.9%, 95% CI 11.1 to 15.3) and had a relatively lower consumption of complex CHO (52.9±13.3%, 95% CI 51.6 to 54.2). These findings were similar to those reported earlier by Radhika et al.11

The comparison of macronutrients (ie, region-wise CHO, fat and protein) revealed a similar pattern of dietary consumption, that is, high CHO and a lower range of fat and protein (figure 1). This study neutralises the myth that only the south Indian population consumes high CHO in their diet (rice, idli and so on). A similar dietary pattern was also reported in non-T2DM participants (figure 2). Our study shows that

only 38.1% of total T2DM participants (n=385, refer table 5) adhere to a diet. This finding is similar (37%, adherence to diet) to that in a study reported by Shobana et al12 earlier from south India. Moreover, adherence to the diet plan was higher (64.4%, n=218, refer table 5) in T2DM participants who were advised a diet plan by their physicians, but a little lower than that reported by Patel et al13 (73%) in a study from western India. These data further suggest the need for all people with T2DM to receive regular nutritional counselling from a dietitian/physicians.

We suggest that people with T2DM should be encouraged to achieve optimal metabolic control through a balance of food intake, physical activity and medication to avoid long-term complications. Most importantly, specific dietary recommendations should be individualised to accommodate the person’s preferences and lifestyle to enhance the acceptance and adherence to the diet plan. The cross-sectional study provides a good opportunity to assess glycaemic control in T2DM participants. In our study, 66.9% of T2DM participants had HbA1c above the targeted 7% (non-adjusted for co-variables). Patel et al13 reported similar findings in their study (35% had HbA1c <7%). In T2DM participants, higher blood glucose levels may reflect poor compliance to therapy, poor physical activity, poor awareness of cut-off points, importance of diet and so on. Engaging the physicians, trained dietician and people with diabetes for increasing awareness Carfilzomib of lifestyle changes to prevent long-term complications is clearly warranted. The amount of CHO consumed affects blood glucose levels and insulin responses.7 In our study, there was a trend (non-significant) towards higher consumption of CHO with high 2 h PPBG levels. Manobala et al14 reported that an increase in dietary CHO (% of energy), glycaemic load and weighted glycaemic index was associated with an increase in HbA1c levels.

All participants were fully informed of the study protocol

All participants were fully informed of the study protocol selleck kinase inhibitor and provided signed informed consent. The study protocol was approved by the Research and Ethics Committee of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria. Data were collected between March and May, 2012. Measures The adapted IPAQ—long Hausa version The cultural adaptation, translation and back translation of the Hausa version of IPAQ-LF is similar to that of the Hausa IPAQ-SF that has been described

in detail elsewhere.21 Briefly, interviews were conducted with public health experts, exercise scientists and local people,

not highly educated, to identify the items and examples of PA on the original questionnaire that needed to be culturally adapted. Several cultural adaptations were made to the original items to reflect the reality in Nigeria. First, adjustments to English words such as ‘vigorous’ and ‘moderate’ activity, which can be misunderstood and not associated with PA behaviours in Nigeria, were replaced with words that are more representative of the language used in Nigeria, such as ‘very hard’ and ‘hard’, respectively. Second, examples of various intensities of activity that are common in the Nigerian culture were added, and those already on the questionnaire but not common in the Nigerian context were replaced with culturally applicable examples

that are equivalent in energy intensity (metabolic energy turnovers, METs) with the original items and examples. Third, concepts such as PA and walking for transportation, which were misconstrued outside the health context, were refined to indicate they were referring to health behaviours. After adaptation, the questionnaire was independently translated from English into Hausa by two native speakers of Hausa who also speak English, and who are able to read and write in both languages. One of the translators was familiar Drug_discovery with the questionnaire and the second was an expert in Hausa. The translated questionnaires were mutually revised by the translators and the research team for consistency and then back translated into English by a third bilingual person who was familiar with the construct measured by IPAQ. The back translated version was checked by the research team for any discrepancies and to ensure that the construct measures by IPAQ had not been lost during the adaptation and translation process.

48 The result from the most comprehensive model in this study (ie

48 The result from the most comprehensive model in this study (ie, Oligomycin A Sigma adjusting for the highest number of confounders) showed an AOR of 1.18 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.84). No prospective studies presented adjusted estimates for episiotomy, but we aggregated the unadjusted results

from five prospective studies (n=32 088 women), finding an increased risk with FGM/C (RR=1.38; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.67; GRADE: very low; figure 3).24 29 53 69 70 There were nine studies with data on instrumental delivery.24 25 29 42 53 66–68 70 Two (registry based) studies reported adjusted data.42 68 The meta-analysis for primiparous women suggested a greater risk of instrumental delivery with FGM/C (AOR=1.56, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.86; GRADE: very low), which could not be firmly established for multiparous women (AOR=1.34, 95% CI 0.80 to 2.26; GRADE: very low; figure 4). We also included nine studies with data on obstetric or postpartum haemorrhage.28 29 38 42 56 66 68–70 Five studies reported adjusted results, which we combined in a meta-analysis. The result indicated a greater risk with

FGM/C (AOR=1.50, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.84; GRADE: very low). However, the pooled adjusted estimate based on the two prospective studies that reported adjusted data for haemorrhage failed to establish a convincing difference relative to FGM/C (AOR=1.91, 95% CI 0.89 to 4.08; GRADE: very low; figure 4).28 69 Lastly, we included six comparative studies with data on difficult delivery.28 42 43 56 66 The pooled result based on adjusted estimates from the two studies that could be combined resulted

in an AOR of 1.88 (95% CI 1.06 to 3.35; GRADE: low; figure 4).28 66 A third study compared women without FGM/C with women who had FGM/C type I. The AORs were 0.17 (95% CI=0.06 to 0.52) and 0.32 (95% CI=0.19 to 0.54), which favoured not having FGM/C.43 There was one prospective study with data on difficult delivery.28 The estimate showed a greater risk with FGM/C (AOR=2.30, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.5). Discussion This systematic review provides clear evidence that FGM/C entails harms to women’s physical health throughout their life, from the moment of cutting as an infant or child, to sexuality and childbirth in adulthood. Predictably, the most common direct, procedure-related Dacomitinib complication includes haemorrhage, most likely resulting from laceration of the internal pudendal artery or the clitoral artery. It is difficult to determine the number of females who die from procedure-related complications. Only a few studies reported death, but highly publicised fatalities from FGM/C heighten the awareness of the possible harms posed by the procedure, such as three recent cases in Egypt and Kenya.88–90 We found several long-term consequences of FGM/C, including increased risks of urinary tract infections, bacterial vaginosis, dyspareunia and obstetric complications. Studies have been published since we conducted our search, and they corroborate our findings.

Figure 1 Periorificial lesions on face in an extensive case Figu

Figure 1 Periorificial lesions on face in an extensive case. Figure 2 Lesions on buttocks. Marked margins, erosions, and brown crusts. One child presented with poliosis which underwent complete repigmentation after therapy with zinc supplement. high throughput screening All children were totally or partially breast fed. Some of them were referred late to our facility by other health facilities after they had received systemic

antibiotics without improvement with already widespread lesions. None of them had signs or symptoms of diarrhea, irritability, severe growth failure, or burns. Their general condition was good, except for that only child affected by moderate malnutrition. Whether they were of normal birth weight and gestational age remained unknown. However, none of them reported any history of prematurity. Moreover, since they were living in rural villages with scanty health facilities, they were not likely to be significantly preterm unless they had a history of admission to the referral hospital. Cutaneous manifestations were mostly moderate to severe and with ulceration or erosions (Table 1). Table 1 Mean features of the patients. All of them showed a good and prompt improvement after short course of oral zinc supplement (3mg/kg/day for 2-3 months). None of the

patients had relapse of the lesions after discontinuing the treatment. For this reason, our diagnosis was transient neonatal zinc deficiency (TNZD). Zinc levels in the patient’s and mother’s blood and in the mother’s milk could not be measured, and mutation

screening of the SLC30A2 gene could not be performed because of the lack of diagnostic facilities in this region of Ethiopia. However, all the mothers were in good general health and had no cutaneous manifestations. One patient had positive family history for the same disease (one brother). We are not able to demonstrate whether other brothers/sisters presented mild signs of the disease; these were not reported by the mothers. One patient presented with an unusual “facies” characterized by hypertelorism, prominent ears, and slightly small sized head, making us think of an associated chromosomal anomaly which was not possible to diagnose GSK-3 as there were no facilities for chromosome mapping. One patient also had polydactyly, a common congenital defect encountered in this region. One patient presented with associated scabies, which is also a highly prevalent disease in this region. 3. Discussion Transient neonatal zinc deficiency (TNZD) is mainly observed in breast-fed infants and does not reoccur after weaning [4]. We think that the number of cases observed in Northern Ethiopia is very high as other reports in the literature are mostly single-case or two-case reports [2, 3, 6–12].