Results: This case report presents a 6-year-old male with a 2

\n\nResults: This case report presents a 6-year-old male with a 2-month history of an enlarging oral lesion. The patient denied dysphagia, pain, weight loss, bleeding, or loosening of the teeth. Biopsy demonstrated invasive, well-differentiated, exophytic squamous cell carcinoma with perineural and angiolymphatic invasion. Computed tomography and

magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a 2.7 x 3.0 cm poorly marginated infiltrative mass involving the gingival aspect of the superior alveolar ridge and the adjacent bony marrow, primarily to the right of midline. Multiple small subcentimeter lymph nodes were also identified in the bilateral level 11 to V posterior cervical triangles bilaterally.\n\nConclusions: Pediatric SCC of the oral cavity is indeed a rare entity; however, its presence in the pediatric population should not be ignored. This case report describes the occurrence of SCC in the oral cavity of a 6-year-old male patient, the youngest case ever reported, and is a reminder that a multidisciplinary approach tailored to pediatric individuals is essential to obtain clear diagnoses and appropriate treatment plans.”
“Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between truancy and escalation of substance use during adolescence Proteasome inhibitor and to explore

potential mechanisms of this relationship. Method: Using data from the Rochester Pexidartinib ic50 Youth Development Study, a longitudinal sample of predominantly minority youth, growth models with time-varying covariates were utilized to assess the relationship between truancy and substance use. Mediated growth models were used to examine potential mechanisms of the relationship, The analyses used five waves of panel data collected from 971 youth and their primary caregivers. Data were collected every 6 months from 1988 to 1990, spanning ages 14-16. Twenty-seven percent of the sample was female. Results: Findings indicate that truant youth engaged

in more substance use, both when comparing one adolescent with another (i.e., a truant adolescent used more substances than an adolescent who was not truant) and when comparing periods of change within an adolescent (i.e., during periods when an adolescent’s truancy escalated, his or her involvement in substance use escalated). Moreover, the effect of escalation of truancy on escalation of substance use was, in part, mediated by escalation of risky, unsupervised time spent with peers. Conclusions: Truancy appears to be a robust predictor of substance use. The effect is likely to be, in part, a result of the deleterious effects of reduced school bonding and, in part, a result of the unsupervised, risky time afforded by truancy. Gaining a better understanding of how truancy may affect substance use is important for the development of prevention and intervention initiatives. (J. Stud.

In human epithelial HeLa cells, here, whole-cell currents of ASOR

In human epithelial HeLa cells, here, whole-cell currents of ASOR anion channel were found to be augmented by warm temperature, with

a threshold temperature of 32 A degrees C. Temperature sensitivity of the conductance was found to be high (with Q (10) of 8.8) in the range of body temperature, suggesting a possible involvement of a non-diffusion-limited process such as a transporter-mediated conduction. In this regard, it is interesting that a Cl-/H+ antiporter ClC-3 has recently been proposed as a candidate for the ASOR channel. However, siRNA-mediated knockdown of hClC-3 failed to suppress ASOR currents in HeLa cells. Also, endogenous ASOR currents in HEK293T cells were not affected by overexpression of human or mouse ClC-3. Furthermore, functional expression of the ASOR channel was virtually absent in

the cisplatin-resistant human cancer KCP-4 cell line despite Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor the fact that AZD7762 molecular expression of ClC-3 was indistinguishable between KCP-4 cells and parental cisplatin-sensitive KB-3-1 cells which endogenously exhibit high activity of ASOR anion channels. These results indicate that the ASOR anion channel is highly sensitive to temperature and independent of ClC-3.”
“Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) develops resistance to the advances in chemotherapy leading to poor prognosis and life quality. Consequently, new treatment modalities are needed. Our aims were to investigate the effects of combined noscapine (NOS) and imatinib mesylate (IM) on human GBM in vitro and the role of midkine (MK) in this new combination treatment.\n\nMethods: Monolayer and spheroid cultures of T98G human GBM cell line were used to evaluate the effects of IM (10 mu M), Nos (10 mu M) and their combination on cell proliferation and apoptotic indexes, cell cycle, the levels of antiapoptotic MK, MRP-1, p170, PFGFR-alpha, EGFR, bcl-2 proteins, apoptotic caspase-3 levels, morphology (SEM) and ultrastructure

(TEM) for 72 hrs.\n\nResults were statistically analyzed using the Student’s t-test. Results: The combination group induced highest decrease in cell proliferation and apoptotic indexes, caspase-3 levels, MRP-1 and PDGFR-a levels. The decrease in p170 levels were lower than IM but higher that NOS. The highest increases were in EGFR, MK, bcl-2 and cAMP levels in the VX-809 purchase combination group. The G0+G1 cell cycle arrest at the end of 72(nd) hr was the lowest in the combination group. Apoptotic appearence was observed rarely both in the morphologic and ultrastructural evaluation of the combination group. In addition, autophagic vacuoles which were frequently observed in the IM group were observed rarely.\n\nConclusions: The combination of Nos with IM showed antagonist effect in T98G human GBM cells in vitro. This antagonist effect was correlated highly with MK levels. The effects of NOS on MRP-1, MK and receptor tyrosine kinase levels were firstly demonstrated in our report.

coli bacteria, such as EHEC, we developed the integrated online d

coli bacteria, such as EHEC, we developed the integrated online database and an analysis platform EhecRegNet. We utilize 3489 known regulations from E. coli K-12 for predictions of yet unknown gene regulatory interactions in 16 human pathogens. For these strains we predict 40 913 regulatory interactions.

EhecRegNet is based on the identification of evolutionarily conserved regulatory sites within the DNA of the harmless E. coli K-12 and the pathogens. Identifying and characterizing EHEC’s genetic control PD98059 order mechanism network on a large scale will allow for a better understanding of its survival and infection strategies. This will support the development of urgently needed new treatments. EhecRegNet is online via”
“Skin as an important site of drug application for both local and systemic effects. However in skin, the stratum corneum is the main barrier for drug penetration. Penetration enhancement technology BI 6727 research buy is a challenging development that would increase the number of drugs available for transdermal administration. The permeation of drug through skin can be enhanced by both chemical penetration enhancement and physical methods. In this review, we have discussed the chemical penetration enhancement technology for transdermal drug delivery as well as the probable mechanisms of action.”
“Biogeochemical processes and fluxes occurring across the sediment-water

interface on continental margins impacted by oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are important to bioelement cycles, ocean inventories, and productivity. The nature

and magnitude of these processes depend heavily on spatial and temporal variability in dissolved O(2) concentrations in bottom waters and porewaters. In 2003, four research cruises to the Indus margin of the Arabian Sea (Pakistan) were undertaken to survey the benthic biogeochemical processes in the find more resident OMZ before and after the southwest monsoon. Sediment O(2) microdistribution and consumption rates were measured at five stations along a depth transect (140-1850 m) across the OMZ, during the spring intermonsoon and the late-to-post southwest monsoon periods, using in situ benthic research platforms (landers). Lander O(2) electrode data show that the intermonsoon and late-to-postmonsoon bottom-water O(2) levels had little to no variation (300 m, no change; 940 m, 1.7-2.8 mu M; 1200 m, 10.2-12.6 mu M; and 1850 m, 82-80 mu M). In contrast, at the shallowest station (140 m), a large fluctuation occurred between the intermonsoon (O(2) = 44.5 mu M) and the late-to-postmonsoon (O(2) = 1 mu M), due to monsoon-forced shoaling of the upper OMZ boundary. Oxygen did not penetrate into the sediments at the 300-m site during either sampling season. During the intermonsoon season at the 140-m site, O(2) penetrated to a depth of similar to 3 mm, but no measurable O(2) penetration occurred after the monsoon.

Four London general practices implemented the template integrated

Four London general practices implemented the template integrated with usual practice. Twelve focus groups during the 6 month study period explored HCPs’ knowledge, communication and information sources

regarding TCAM and perceived barriers to template implementation.\n\nResults: HCPs were initially enthusiastic about LDN-193189 manufacturer discussing TCAM, for improving communication and understanding patient’s choices, but the template was used in under a third of consultations. HCPs were surprised at low TCAM use (10%) and lack of correlation with eczema or ethnicity. Reported barriers were time and remembering, due to busy, target-driven practice.\n\nConclusion: HCPs recognize the importance of discussing TCAM use for childhood eczema, and potential benefits for HCP-patient communication.\n\nPractice implications: Future tools to facilitate TCAM discussion should prioritise use of existing

IT systems and address barriers to use, especially lack of time. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Some members of the nuclear transcription factor Y subunit B (NF-YB) have been newly reported to regulate a variety of functions in annual plant development and drought tolerance. The overall goal of this study was to identify and characterize the NF-YB genes in the model tree Populus trichocarpa, Nutlin-3a in vitro with the expectation of determining which orthologs in P. euphratica, naturally distributed selleck screening library in semiarid regions, were involved in drought response. A total of 20 NF-YB genes in the P. trichocarpa genome were identified and annotated. The examination on their phylogenetic relationships and ortholog predictions showed that Populus has an expanded set of NF-YB genes within

unknown functional groups in comparison to Arabidopsis. Four members of the PeNF-YB gene family in P. euphratica were found to be up-regulated in expression during PEG-6000 (polyethylene glycol 6000) drought treatment based on RT-qPCR analyses. The increased knowledge on the phylogenetic relationships, predicted orthologs, and expression patterns of the poplar NF-YB genes during drought stress can be expected to promote the future study of woody plants.”
“Waste dumping is one of the major causes of environment pollution in Bangladesh. This study was designed to assess the impact on health of children working in one of the garbage dumping sites in Dhaka. Blood samples were collected from exposed (n = 20, aged: 8-15 years, exposed to dumped garbage from 6 months to 6 years) and control subjects (n = 15, age matched and never worked in the garbage dumping site). Oxidative stress markers like lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyl content were measured. Alkaline comet assay was performed to assess the possible damage in DNA. To check the consequences of possible toxic exposure, we performed liver function tests of the study subjects.

Results When compared to SCA, CJP was associated with

\n\nResults When compared to SCA, CJP was associated with

significantly less “prolongation of evacuation” but more “use of laxatives” in the intermediate-term follow-up, while both less “sensation of incomplete evacuation” and less “fragmentation” was found after CJP in the long-term. When compared to TCP, CJP was associated with significantly less fragmentation in the intermediate-term follow-up.\n\nConclusions Evacuation ABT-263 cell line disorders are a unique problem of low anterior resection and are not specifically related to the colon J-pouch.”
“Background and purposeStudies mostly use the analysis of heart rate variability to measure cardiovascular autonomic regulation in ischemic stroke. Besides power spectral analysis of heart rate variability, this study sought to determine whether autonomic function was impaired during different phases in ischemic stroke by Ewing’s battery of autonomic function tests.\n\nMethodsNinety-four patients with ischemic stroke (34 patients in acute phase and 60 patients in chronic phase, average six-months after stroke onset) and thirty-seven elderly controls were recruited. Ewing’s battery autonomic function tests and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability

were performed in all the subjects.\n\nResultsFrom power spectral analysis of heart rate variability, stroke patients of both acute and chronic phases had significantly lower low frequency power spectral density than controls. From Ewing’s battery of autonomic function tests, patients in acute Selleck Volasertib phase showed impairment in two parasympathetic tests (Valsalva ratio: P=0002; heart rate response to deep breathing: P<0001) and those in chronic phase showed impairment in all parasympathetic tests (all P<005) in comparison with

controls.\n\nConclusionsThe comprehensive assessment indicates that autonomic dysfunction occurs in acute phase of ischemic stroke and may persist up to six-months after stroke. Parasympathetic dysfunction rather than sympathetic dysfunction is predominant after ischemic stroke.”
“Gender and the structure of the inflorescence and flowers of Pappea capensis (Sapindaceae) RSL3 supplier are investigated in a locality around Pretoria (22-27 degrees S and 25-32 degrees E). The trees flower over a long period (December to April) and are basically monoecious, starting with male flowers followed by female flowers towards the end of the flowering period, although some trees may be predominantly male and some predominantly female. The inflorescence is a reduced thyrse with small flowers. Male flowers have five ephemeral petals, eight stamens and a rudimental pistil. Female flowers comprise a 3-lobed ovary, a single style and stigma and eight staminodes. (C) 2010 SAAB. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

However, the speed of laser marking has become a bottleneck of

However, the speed of laser marking has become a bottleneck of

production. In order to remove this bottleneck, a new method based on a genetic algorithm is designed. On the basis of this algorithm, a controller was designed and simulations and experiments were performed. The results show that using this algorithm could effectively improve laser marking efficiency by 25%.”
“There are conflicting results of published studies about prognostic value of various factors in purulent renal infections. The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify potential see more risk factors for early and late treatment failure in such infections. A retrospective review of 75 renal suppurative infections, at three tertiary Serbian Clinics of Urology, was conducted. We considered numerous potential risk factors in a multivariate analysis. This series was comprised of 49 women and 26 men, with mean age of 56.7 years. There were 38 and 37 patients who experienced successful and unfavorable early treatment outcome, respectively. Overall mortality rate was 9.3%. Comorbidity

[odds ratio (OR) = 1.6], complex suppurative pathological findings (OR = 3.6), presence of Pseudomonas spp. (OR = 6.7), multiple bacterial strains GSK461364 mw (OR = 2.7), and positive culture itself (OR = 3.6) were the predictors of poor early prognosis. A urological intervention and presence of pyonephrosis significantly increased the chance for good initial outcome (OR = 0.32 and 0.37, respectively). In the late treatment failure analysis presence of comorbidities (OR = 5.8) and treatment complications (OR = 7.5) significantly increased chance for fatal outcome. Patients’ baseline health status and complexity of suppuration itself were the most important predictors of clinical outcomes. Surgical drainage dominated over antimicrobial therapy.”
“The combination of a certain zwitterion

and sodium phosphotungstate provided an excellent catalyst for the epoxidation Z-VAD-FMK cost of cyclooctene: high TON was available even without any solvents and under ice bath condition. Based on characterizations by H-1, C-13 and P-31 NMR as well as FT-IR, Raman and UV-vis methods and investigations on the catalytic performance of the binary system, strong cooperative effect between zwitterions and sodium phosphotungstate was demonstrated. Here, the formation of stable W/O emulsion by the amphiphilic zwitterions seems to be crucial, which allows cyclooctene being in sufficient contact with the active phosphotungstate anions in the water phase. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Consider informative selection of a sample from a finite population. Responses are realized as independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables with a probability density function (p.d.f.) f, referred to as the superpopulation model. The selection is informative in the sense that the sample responses, given that they were selected, are not i.i.d. f.

In contrast to predictions, keratin-free cells show about 60% hig

In contrast to predictions, keratin-free cells show about 60% higher cell deformability even for small deformations. This response is compared with the less pronounced softening effects for actin depolymerization

induced via latrunculin A. To relate these findings with functional consequences, we use invasion and 3D growth assays. These experiments reveal higher invasiveness of keratin-free cells. Reexpression of a small amount of the keratin pair K5/K14 in keratin-free cells reverses the above phenotype for the invasion but does not with respect to cell deformability. Our data show a unique NCT-501 supplier role of keratins as major players of cell stiffness, influencing invasion with implications for epidermal homeostasis and pathogenesis. This study supports the view that down-regulation of keratins observed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition directly contributes to the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells.”
“Fabricating individualized tissue engineering scaffolds based on the three-dimensional shape of patient bone defects is required for the successful clinical application of bone tissue engineering. However, there are currently no reported studies of individualized bone tissue engineering scaffolds that learn more truly reproduce a patient-specific bone defect. We fabricated individualized tissue engineering

scaffolds based on alveolar bone defects. The individualized poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and tricalcium phosphate composite scaffolds were custom-made by acquiring the three-dimensional model through computed tomography, which was input into the computer-aided low-temperature deposition manufacturing

system. The three-dimensional shape of the fabricated scaffold was identical to the patient-specific alveolar bone defects, with an average macropore diameter of 380 mu m, micropore diameters ranging from 3 to 5 mu m, and an average porosity of 87.4%. The mechanical properties of the scaffold were similar to adult cancellous bone. Scaffold biocompatibility was confirmed by attachment and proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal Selonsertib stem cells. Successful realization of individualized scaffold fabrication will enable clinical application of tissue-engineered bone at an early date. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The heterogeneity of epilepsy syndromes and pathologies creates a great challenge for the search for biomarkers. Not surprisingly, identification of a marker that is specific and sensitive for a given epileptogenic pathology remains an unmet need. There have, however, been several studies of major epileptogenic etiologies like traumatic brain injury that aimed to identify molecular markers in blood and cerebrospinal fluid that predict outcome, by using proteomics and metabolomics. Unfortunately, epileptogenesis has not been analyzed as an outcome measure.

33 +/- 0 85 Delta E were evidenced in used endotracheal tubes, as

33 +/- 0.85 Delta E were evidenced in used endotracheal tubes, as compared to virgin samples (p < 0.0001). Chromatic changes

were independent from intubation duration. DSC and TGA analyses showed a loss of DEHP from used tubes, as indicated by increase of the glass transition temperature MLN4924 supplier (Tg) and DEHP weight loss. In vivo application of tubes was associated with an aging process whose effects on the optical and spectral properties were similar to those observed following artificial aging processes. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that significant spectrocolorimetric, DSC and TGA changes occur in endotracheal tubes after application, thus demonstrating for the first time the occurrence of in vivo materials degradation and DEHP leakage from medical devices worldwide used for neonatal ventilation. Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background. Survivin is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein VX-680 family that plays an important role in carcinogenesis. Here, we examined the association between survivin expression and clinical outcome in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). Methods. A total of 56

histopathologically confirmed UCB patients were recruited from the Department of Urology of Chiayi Christian Hospital from August 2007 to May 2009. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the survivin expression in tumor tissues. The -31 C/G polymorphism in survivin promoter region was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length

polymorphism. Results. The frequency of high survivin expression was significantly higher in muscle-invasive tumors (66.6%) than in non-muscle-invasive tumors (34.2%) (P = 0.042) and in poorly differentiated (85.7%) tumors than in moderately differentiated tumors (30.8%) (P = 0.0014). The higher frequency of risk genotypes (C/C and C/G) was found in the median (72.7%) and high (68.0%) survivin expression groups. The multivariate analysis showed that a high survivin expression level was a potential predictive biomarker of poor overall survival (P = 0.02). Conclusion. Our results suggest that the high survivin expression was associated with tumor stage and grade and may present a predictive marker of overall survival in UCB.”
“Two, novel, tetradentate Schiff-base ligands. namely bis-5-phenylazosalicylaldehyde diethylenetriimine and bis-5-[(4-methoxyphenyl)azo]salicylaldehyde diethylenetriimine, as well Citarinostat as their Cu(2+), Ni(2+), and VO(2+) complexes, were synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, infrared and also UV-Visible spectroscopy, (1)HNMR and mass spectra. The thermal stability of the free ligands and the related metal complexes, as determined using differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis, were found to be thermally stable upto 240-275 degrees C depending on the type of ligand and the central metal atom. The lambda(max) of the ligands and their transition metal complexes in the region 300-800 nm are discussed.

For clinical validation, we measured levels of TFPI2 and CA125 in

For clinical validation, we measured levels of TFPI2 and CA125 in a set of sera from 30 healthy women, 30 patients with endometriosis, and 50 patients with CCA, using an automated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems. Serum levels of TFPI2 were significantly elevated in CCA patients, even those with normal CA125 levels. In terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), TFPI2 was superior to CA125 in discriminating CCA patients from healthy women (AUC 0.97 for TFPI2 versus AUC 0.80 for CA125), or from patients with endometriosis

(AUC 0.93 for TFPI2 versus 0.80 for CA125). This is the first evidence for TFPI2 as a serum biomarker of CCA. We propose that this biomarker may be useful for detection of CCA and for monitoring

the transformation from endometriosis into CCA.”
“Somatic transposon mutagenesis this website in mice is an efficient strategy to investigate the genetic mechanisms of tumorigenesis. The identification of tumor driving transposon insertions traditionally requires the generation of large tumor cohorts to obtain information about common insertion sites. Tumor driving insertions are also characterized by their clonal expansion in tumor tissue, a phenomenon that is facilitated by the slow and evolving transformation process of transposon mutagenesis. We describe here an improved approach for the detection of tumor driving insertions that assesses the clonal expansion of insertions by quantifying the relative proportion of sequence reads obtained in individual tumors. To this end, we have developed a protocol for insertion site sequencing that utilizes acoustic AZD6244 ic50 shearing of tumor DNA and Illumina sequencing. We analyzed various solid tumors generated by PiggyBac mutagenesis and

for each tumor >10(6) reads corresponding to >10(4) insertion sites were obtained. In each tumor, 9 to 25 insertions stood out by their enriched sequence read frequencies when compared to frequencies obtained Sapanisertib from tail DNA controls. These enriched insertions are potential clonally expanded tumor driving insertions, and thus identify candidate cancer genes. The candidate cancer genes of our study comprised many established cancer genes, but also novel candidate genes such as Mastermind-like1 (Mamld1) and Diacylglycerolkinase delta (Dgkd). We show that clonal expansion analysis by high-throughput sequencing is a robust approach for the identification of candidate cancer genes in insertional mutagenesis screens on the level of individual tumors.”
“Electronic tongue systems have been developed for taste measurement of bitter drug substances in accurate taste comparison to development palatable oral formulations. This study was to evaluate the taste masking effect of conventional pharmaceutical sweeteners such as neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sucrose, sucralose and aspartame. The model drugs were acetaminophen, ibuprofen, tramadol hydrochloride, and sildenafil citrate (all at 20 mM).

GF tends to be taken in repeated doses for a long period of time,

GF tends to be taken in repeated doses for a long period of time, and although many reports on the toxicity of raw GF have led to a processing method to remove the toxicity, Selleckchem PLX3397 little information is currently available with regards to the toxic effects of subchronic exposure to processed GF (PGF). The aim of this study was to assess the possible genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity of PGF extract in accordance with the test guidelines published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. A 13-week repeat-dose

oral toxicity study was carried out with rats, and the change in body weight observed in rats receiving PGF extract was normal. It is worth noting that the PGF extract groups exhibited an obvious TH-302 increase in liver weight along with a significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity at doses of 667 and 2000 mg/kg, providing evidence of hepatotoxic potential. More importantly, the results of the Ames test indicated that the PGF extract presented a mutagenic potential. Altogether,

these results are the first to determine the subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of the PGF extract, indicating that when GF is used for medicinal purposes, the period of use should be considered despite the manner in which the extract is processed. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Amoebiasis is a potentially lethal disease and causes 70,000 deaths per year. To find structural requirements for more active antiamoebic agents than metronidazole, comparative QSAR modelling was

done on thirty 1-N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-3-phenyl-2-pyrazolines. The best model was obtained by using PLS technique with R-A(2) and R-CV(2) value of 88.50% and 82.90%, respectively. Amoebicidal activity may increase when Wang-Ford charges at atom numbers 6 and 12 have large positive values. Number of six-membered ring and sum of Kier-Hall electrotopological states may also increase amoebicidal activity when these have large positive values. Increasing value of rotatable bond fraction, Staurosporine research buy approximate surface area and mean atomic polarizability scaled on carbon atom may be detrimental for antiamoebic activity. Decrease in values of electrostatic potential charges at atom numbers 1 and 12 may be conducive for activity. Electrophilic attacks may be favourable at these positions. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aim: Describe characteristics and outcome of INRG patients with ganglioneuroblastoma, nodular subtype (GNBn).\n\nPatients and methods: Amongst 4071 patients in the INRG database with known INPC histological category, 232 patients with GNBn were identified. Patients were categorised by clinical, pathological and genetic characteristic. For event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS), Kaplan-Meier curves and lifetables were generated, and the outcome of subgroups was compared using log rank test.