In contrast to predictions, keratin-free cells show about 60% hig

In contrast to predictions, keratin-free cells show about 60% higher cell deformability even for small deformations. This response is compared with the less pronounced softening effects for actin depolymerization

induced via latrunculin A. To relate these findings with functional consequences, we use invasion and 3D growth assays. These experiments reveal higher invasiveness of keratin-free cells. Reexpression of a small amount of the keratin pair K5/K14 in keratin-free cells reverses the above phenotype for the invasion but does not with respect to cell deformability. Our data show a unique NCT-501 supplier role of keratins as major players of cell stiffness, influencing invasion with implications for epidermal homeostasis and pathogenesis. This study supports the view that down-regulation of keratins observed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition directly contributes to the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells.”
“Fabricating individualized tissue engineering scaffolds based on the three-dimensional shape of patient bone defects is required for the successful clinical application of bone tissue engineering. However, there are currently no reported studies of individualized bone tissue engineering scaffolds that learn more truly reproduce a patient-specific bone defect. We fabricated individualized tissue engineering

scaffolds based on alveolar bone defects. The individualized poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and tricalcium phosphate composite scaffolds were custom-made by acquiring the three-dimensional model through computed tomography, which was input into the computer-aided low-temperature deposition manufacturing

system. The three-dimensional shape of the fabricated scaffold was identical to the patient-specific alveolar bone defects, with an average macropore diameter of 380 mu m, micropore diameters ranging from 3 to 5 mu m, and an average porosity of 87.4%. The mechanical properties of the scaffold were similar to adult cancellous bone. Scaffold biocompatibility was confirmed by attachment and proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal Selonsertib stem cells. Successful realization of individualized scaffold fabrication will enable clinical application of tissue-engineered bone at an early date. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The heterogeneity of epilepsy syndromes and pathologies creates a great challenge for the search for biomarkers. Not surprisingly, identification of a marker that is specific and sensitive for a given epileptogenic pathology remains an unmet need. There have, however, been several studies of major epileptogenic etiologies like traumatic brain injury that aimed to identify molecular markers in blood and cerebrospinal fluid that predict outcome, by using proteomics and metabolomics. Unfortunately, epileptogenesis has not been analyzed as an outcome measure.

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