Nevertheless we can rely on the

Nevertheless we can rely on the Z-VAD-FMK lowest observable adverse effect level (WHO, 1987a and WHO, 2000a) in either short-term or annual average exposures as an alternative to dependency on longer term outcome measures. This approach also emphasizes the necessity of deriving an explicit

annual guideline for the other criteria pollutants, SO2 and O3, to support the evaluation of health effects from long-term exposure. Based on the present study, the estimated annual limits for SO2 and O3 can be regarded as hypotheses pending for confirmation from long-term studies. Nevertheless, our present estimations of 4.6 μg/m3 and 27.0 μg/m3 were supported by epidemiologic evidence. For examples attributable to SO2, the daily mortality in Finland was shown with an annual average concentration of 7 μg/m3 (Penttinen et al., 2004) and the reduced fetal growth in Australia with annual average concentration of 3 μg/m3 (Hansen et al., 2008). For example attributable to O3, the asthma hospital admissions in Finland were demonstrated LY294002 in vivo with an annual average concentration

of 22 μg/m3 (Ponka and Virtanen, 1996). Ensuring a valid relationship between the short-term and annual AQG will enhance the immediate and regular periodic evaluation of any new pollution control policy because efforts in ensuring compliance, with the short-term AQG being monitored in real-time, can be used to predict in advance whether the annual AQG will be achieved, providing either prompt warnings of the need for remedial measures or assurance for effective policies with improved public health protection and accountability. On the other hand, provision of an estimated annual limits based on the short-term AQG will allow consistent

comparative health impact assessment and economic evaluation for new policy implementations. The inclusion of more cities could improve the generalizability of findings. However our study provides a cross-sectional view of air quality over Farnesyltransferase seven years from 2004 to 2010, and the key parameters, dμ and dm, which we assumed to be constant in the model were very stable regardless of the variation in the annual mean in different years. While our findings require further support and no similar studies or alternative approaches have been conducted, indirect evidence of the discordance of the current NO2 guideline limits was also revealed in the EU in that 90% of the monitoring stations had violated the directive for the NO2 annual limit of 40 μg/m3 but complied with the one-hour limit of 200 μg/m3 ( ETCACC, 2010). This observation also indicates that the short-term limit should be lowered in order to be an effective measure to provide early indication that the annual limit will be violated.

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