Ramos B cells are also shown to be sensitive to IFN-α stimulation

Ramos B cells are also shown to be sensitive to IFN-α stimulation 32. The cells hence provide an ideal system to study the primary regulation mechanism of IFN-α on IL-4 signals relevant for CD23 gene expression. We have first analyzed the effect of IFN-α on the IL-4-inducible CD23 expression. The flow cytometric data show that IL-4 induced a significant increase (over 4-fold) of cell surface CD23 expression (Fig. Y-27632 ic50 1), and IFN-α inhibited the induction of CD23 expression by IL-4 in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 1A, right panel). A nearly

complete inhibitory effect of IFN-α on the IL-4-induced CD23 expression is shown in a representative FACS analysis (Fig. 1A, middle panel). The antagonistic effect of IFN-α was confirmed at CD23 mRNA levels measured by quantitative real-time-PCR. As reported for primary B cells 19, 20, the result demonstrates that IFN-α effectively suppresses the IL-4-induced CD23 mRNA expression to reduce cell surface CD23 levels in Ramos B cells, which is a property shared by IFN-γ (Supporting Information Fig. S1-A). It appears that early signals generated by IL-4, through Jak1/STAT6 activation, are capable of leading to CD23 gene expression and sustaining it, since the critical role of STAT6 activation in the IL-4 induction of CD23

expression has been clearly demonstrated by studies with STAT6-deficient models 33. The inhibition Selleckchem GSK2126458 of IFN-α on the IL-4-induced CD23 gene expression, however, exhibited a delayed kinetics, requiring at least 4 h incubation after IFN-α treatment (Fig. 1B). Thus in the experiments followed, we examined mainly

the effect of IFN-α pretreatment for 4 h on the IL-4-induced Jak/STAT6 activation to further investigate stiripentol the inhibitory mechanism of IFN-α on the IL-4 signaling leading to CD23 gene regulation. When the IFN-α-treated Ramos B cells were analyzed for the IL-4-inducible Jak1/3 and STAT6 activities, no appreciable changes were observed on the Jak1/3 phosphorylation and total tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT6 during the periods (up to 4 h) required for the suppression of CD23 gene expression by IFN-α (Fig. 2A). Yet, upon cell fractionation, the effect of IFN-α on the cytosolic retention (+66%) and reduced nuclear localization (−75%) of IL-4-induced pY-STAT6 was evident in cells treated with IFN-α for 4 h, while co-treatment of IFN-α for 0.5 h produced a little effect, showing a pattern of STAT6 phosphorylation and localization similar to the treatment of IL-4 alone (Fig. 2B). Densitometry data obtained from multiple blots demonstrate relative phosphorylation levels of STAT6, shown as pY-STAT6/STAT6 ratio in different cellular fractions (Fig. 2B). We then examined cellular localization of STAT6 using confocal microscopic analysis. The data also show that IFN-α treatment for 4 h resulted in increased cytoplasmic levels of pY-STAT6 with its reduced nuclear localization in B cells (Fig. 2C).

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