S and many other countries where industrial Mn pollution or well

S. and many other countries where industrial Mn pollution or well water naturally high in Mn result in MnOE-induced neurotoxicity. We included an environmental deprivation rearing condition (barren housing) to model chronic developmental stress because

MnOE more often occurs in regions of lower SES, stress, and physical and social hardship. In order to test these conditions on the HPA axis we measured corticosterone before and after an acute stressor (standing in shallow water for 30 min). Reduced body weight was CYC202 found during treatment in both Mn-treated groups regardless of housing condition. The literature on developmental Mn exposure and body weight effects is mixed. One study that exposed rats to Mn throughout gestation

and lactation and, similar to the present experiment, found significant body weight reductions during treatment [46] as did a study giving Mn in drinking water to rats from P1-80 in which reduced body weight occurred in the high dose group but not in the mid or lower dose groups [47]. In another study click here in rats treated with Mn by gavage, as we did, from P1-21, MnOE rats had reduced body weights at the two doses tested (25 and 50 mg/kg/day); their high dose being our low dose [48]. There is also a report of prenatal Mn exposure causing reduced fetal weight [49]. In contrast to these reports, there is one report of gestational and lactational Mn exposure in rats finding increased body weight in females during and three weeks after the end of treatment but no changes in males [50]. Several studies report no change in body weight resulting from preweaning Mn exposure: one found no change in body weight on P8 or P29 in rats from Mn exposure from P8-27, however, (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate this study used doses lower than ours [51]. Another study found no change in body weight in rats at P21 after Mn exposure

from P1-20, again at doses lower than ours [23]; and another study found no differences in body weight after P1-21 Mn exposure in rats long after exposure when the animals were adults, but report no data on body weight during treatment [52]. There is also a study in rats using Mn that found no body weight differences in the offspring at P21 after prenatal-only exposure, also at doses below ours (5 mg/kg/day vs. our 50 mg/kg/2 days) [53]; and a study in rats using later Mn exposure starting at P21 that found no body weight differences [54]. Somewhat surprisingly, there are also a number of developmental Mn studies that are silent concerning body weight. Four preweaning exposure studies in rats [9], [55], [56] and [57] and five using exposures that started on P21 ([58], [59], [60], [61] and [62]) make no mention of body weight. It is difficult to draw conclusions from the above with so many studies not mentioning body weight.

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